Study type: Medical/biological study (experimental study)

Effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic wave exposure from cellular phones on the reproductive pattern in male wistar rats med./bio.

Published in: Appl Biochem Biotechnol 2011; 164 (4): 546-559

Aim of study (acc. to author)

To study the effect of mobile phone exposure on free radical formation and the fertility pattern in male rats.

Background/further details

Six animals were exposed and six animals were sham exposed. All experiments were repeated.



Exposure Parameters
Exposure 1: 900 MHz
Exposure duration: continuous for 2 h/day on 35 days
  • power: 2 mW maximum
  • SAR: 0.9 W/kg (manufacturer's data)

Exposure 1

Main characteristics
Frequency 900 MHz
Exposure duration continuous for 2 h/day on 35 days
Additional info GSM in standby mode
Exposure setup
Exposure source
Setup rats kept in individual plastic cages, fitted with anechoic material with ventilation holes of 1 cm diameter; mobile phone antenna placed on top of the cage
Sham exposure A sham exposure was conducted.
Measurand Value Type Method Mass Remarks
power 2 mW maximum measured - -
SAR 0.9 W/kg - - - manufacturer's data

Reference articles

Exposed system:

Methods Endpoint/measurement parameters/methodology

Investigated system:
Investigated organ system:
Time of investigation:
  • after exposure

Main outcome of study (acc. to author)

The antioxidant enzyme activities of glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase decreased, while the catalase enzyme activity increased in the exposed group compared to the control group. The malondialdehyde level increased and histone kinase showed a significant decrease in the exposed group. The micronuclei formation in the blood samples of the exposed group also significantly decreased compared to the control group. A significant change (decrease) in sperm cell cycle of G0 phase/G1 phase and G2 phase/mitosis were recorded. Production of free radicals significantly increased in the exposed group.
The findings on antioxidant enzyme activities, malondialdehyde level, histone kinase, micronuclei formation, and sperm cell cycle are clear indications of an infertility pattern, induced by an overproduction of reactive oxygen species. The authors conclude that radiofrequency electromagnetic fields from cell phones might affect the fertilizing potential of spermatozoa.

Study character:

Study funded by

Related articles