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all newly published articles released up to April 30, 2018 have been included. In
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Distance between exposed object and exposure source
The rats were placed in holding units consisting of ventilated 5.1 cm x 15.2 cm PVC tubes fitted with 0.59-liter clear plastic bottle tops on one end and common 7.6-cm bolts with nuts at the other end. As the rats grew larger, new units were made using 8.9-cm PVC tubes, 1-liter bottles, and 10.2-cm bolts with nuts.
Each cell phone was positioned 1 cm from the head of the rats, at equal distances between two rats in holding chambers.
A sham exposure was conducted.
Rats were exposed for 3 hours, followed by a 30-minute rest period outside of the tubes and a second exposure for 3 more hours per day.
Otitoloju AA et al.
Preliminary study on the induction of sperm head abnormalities in mice, Mus musculus, exposed to radiofrequency radiations from global system for mobile communication base stations.
Mailankot M et al.
Radio frequency electromagnetic radiation (RF-EMR) from GSM (0.9/1.8GHz) mobile phones induces oxidative stress and reduces sperm motility in rats.