Study type: Medical/biological study (experimental study)

In-vitro assessment of Jurkat T-cells response to 1966 MHz electromagnetic fields in a GTEM cell. med./bio.

Published in: IEEE 37th Annual International Conference of the Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (EMBC), 2015. IEEE, 2015, ISBN 9781424492701: 2592-2595

Aim of study (acc. to author)

The genotoxic effect of exposure of Jurkat cells to 1966 MHz electromagnetic fields should be investigated.

Background/further details

Several fields with different field strengths, exposure durations and either a continuous wave signal or UMTS modulation were investigated. For each field, a total of 20 exposed and 4 sham-exposed cell culture tubes was examined. Further 4 exposed tubes per field were used for temperature measurement. Additionally, an unknown number of tubes were used as the control group.

Endpoint

Exposure

Exposure Parameters
Exposure 1: 1,966 MHz
Modulation type: CW
Exposure duration: continuous for 10 minutes
Exposure 2: 1,966 MHz
Modulation type: CW
Exposure duration: continuous for 120 minutes
Exposure 3: 1,966 MHz
Modulation type: CW
Exposure duration: continuous for 10 minutes
Exposure 4: 1,966 MHz
Modulation type: CW
Exposure duration: continuous for 120 minutes
Exposure 5: 1,966 MHz
Exposure duration: continuous for 10 minutes
Exposure 6: 1,966 MHz
Exposure duration: continuous for 120 minutes
Exposure 7: 1,966 MHz
Exposure duration: continuous for 10 minutes
Exposure 8: 1,966 MHz
Exposure duration: continuous for 120 minutes

Exposure 1

Main characteristics
Frequency 1,966 MHz
Type
Exposure duration continuous for 10 minutes
Modulation
Modulation type CW
Exposure setup
Exposure source
Chamber dielectric tubes in a rack
Setup the GTEM cell had outer dimensions of 3.95 m x 2.02 m x 1.95 m
Sham exposure A sham exposure was conducted.
Parameters
Measurand Value Type Method Mass Remarks
electric field strength 10 V/m - calibration - -
power 0.691 W - measured - generator input power

Exposure 2

Main characteristics
Frequency 1,966 MHz
Type
Exposure duration continuous for 120 minutes
Modulation
Modulation type CW
Exposure setup
Exposure source
Sham exposure A sham exposure was conducted.
Parameters
Measurand Value Type Method Mass Remarks
electric field strength 3 V/m - calibration - -
power 0.066 W - measured - generator input power

Exposure 3

Main characteristics
Frequency 1,966 MHz
Type
Exposure duration continuous for 10 minutes
Modulation
Modulation type CW
Exposure setup
Exposure source
Sham exposure A sham exposure was conducted.
Parameters
Measurand Value Type Method Mass Remarks
electric field strength 76.4 V/m - calibration - -
power 43.651 W - measured - generator input power

Exposure 4

Main characteristics
Frequency 1,966 MHz
Type
Exposure duration continuous for 120 minutes
Modulation
Modulation type CW
Exposure setup
Exposure source
Sham exposure A sham exposure was conducted.
Parameters
Measurand Value Type Method Mass Remarks
electric field strength 76.4 V/m - calibration - -
power 43.651 W - measured - generator input power

Exposure 5

Main characteristics
Frequency 1,966 MHz
Type
Exposure duration continuous for 10 minutes
Additional info UMTS
Modulation
Modulation type cf. additional info
Additional info

3G/UMTS

Exposure setup
Exposure source
Sham exposure A sham exposure was conducted.
Parameters
Measurand Value Type Method Mass Remarks
electric field strength 10 V/m - calibration - -
power 2.041 W - measured - generator input power

Exposure 6

Main characteristics
Frequency 1,966 MHz
Type
Exposure duration continuous for 120 minutes
Additional info UMTS
Modulation
Modulation type cf. additional info
Additional info

3G/UMTS

Exposure setup
Exposure source
Sham exposure A sham exposure was conducted.
Parameters
Measurand Value Type Method Mass Remarks
electric field strength 3 V/m - calibration - -
power 0.169 W - measured - generator input power

Exposure 7

Main characteristics
Frequency 1,966 MHz
Type
Exposure duration continuous for 10 minutes
Additional info UMTS
Modulation
Modulation type cf. additional info
Additional info

3G/UMTS

Exposure setup
Exposure source
Sham exposure A sham exposure was conducted.
Parameters
Measurand Value Type Method Mass Remarks
electric field strength 76.4 V/m - calibration - -
power 95.499 W - measured - generator input power

Exposure 8

Main characteristics
Frequency 1,966 MHz
Type
Exposure duration continuous for 120 minutes
Additional info UMTS
Modulation
Modulation type cf. additional info
Additional info

3G/UMTS

Exposure setup
Exposure source
Sham exposure A sham exposure was conducted.
Parameters
Measurand Value Type Method Mass Remarks
electric field strength 76.4 V/m - calibration - -
power 95.499 W - measured - generator input power

Exposed system:

Methods Endpoint/measurement parameters/methodology

Investigated system:
Time of investigation:
  • before exposure
  • after exposure

Main outcome of study (acc. to author)

DNA damage was significantly increased in sham exposed cells of all groups compared to the control group. For continuous wave exposure, only high intensity fields (groups 3 and 4) showed a slight but significantly increased level of DNA damage compared to sham exposed cells. However, UMTS exposure resulted in signficantly increased DNA damage in all exposure groups (groups 5-8) compared to sham exposed cells.
The temperature increase during exposure was 0.1°C in the groups with the lowest field strength (groups 2 and 6) and most distinct in groups with the highest field strength and longest exposure duration (groups 4 and 8 with 1.2°C and 1.3°C, respectively). As there were only small differences observed between corresponding groups of continuous wave and UMTS exposure, it was assumed that the temperature increase was associated to electric field intensity more than to modulation scheme.
Exposure to the electromagnetic fields had no effect on cell viability.
The authors conclude that exposure to a UMTS 1966 MHz electromagnetic field might be related to DNA damage in Jurkat cells.

Study character:

Study funded by

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