Study type: Medical/biological study (experimental study)

Microwave radiation (2.45 GHz)-induced oxidative stress: Whole-body exposure effect on histopathology of Wistar rats med./bio.

Published in: Electromagn Biol Med 2017; 36 (1): 20-30

Aim of study (acc. to author)

The effects of exposure of rats to a 2.45 GHz electromagnetic field on histological changes and oxidative stress in some organs should be investigated.

Background/further details

Sixty-day-old male Wistar rats were divided into 2 groups (n=4, respectively): exposure and sham exposure. In each group, 2 animals were exposed in the morning and 2 animals were exposed in the afternoon on each exposure day.
Experiments were repeated thrice.



Exposure Parameters
Exposure 1: 2.45 GHz
Modulation type: FM
Exposure duration: 2 h per day for 35 days
  • power density: 0.2 mW/cm² unspecified
  • SAR: 0.14 W/kg unspecified (whole body)

Exposure 1

Main characteristics
Frequency 2.45 GHz
Exposure duration 2 h per day for 35 days
Additional info vertical polarization
Modulation type FM
Modulation frequency 50 Hz
Exposure setup
Exposure source
Distance between exposed object and exposure source 10 cm
Chamber plexiglass cages (200 × 50 × 60 mm3) with fixed holes (2 mm diameter) in anechoic chamber lined with radar absorbing material (attenuation 40 db); temperature in the chamber was maintained around 25–27°C
Sham exposure A sham exposure was conducted.
Additional info microwave oven generated signal, which was sent to the horn antenna; 2 animals were lightly restrained in cages so that they were were facing the antenna; the field relative to the long axis of the cages had vertical polarization; each day, the cage was placed in the same position; microwave generator and exposure cage were placed about a meter apart
Measurand Value Type Method Mass Remarks
power density 0.2 mW/cm² unspecified measured - -
SAR 0.14 W/kg unspecified estimated whole body -

Reference articles

  • Meena R et al. (2014): Therapeutic approaches of melatonin in microwave radiations-induced oxidative stress-mediated toxicity on male fertility pattern of Wistar rats
  • Kesari KK et al. (2010): Mutagenic response of 2.45 GHz radiation exposure on rat brain

Exposed system:

Methods Endpoint/measurement parameters/methodology

Investigated system:
Time of investigation:
  • after exposure

Main outcome of study (acc. to author)

All organs investigated, i.e. brain, liver, kidney, spleen, testes and epididymis, showed histological changes in all exposed animals compared to sham exposed animals with normal histological appearance.
Lipid peroxidation was significantly increased in in the liver, brain and spleen of exposed animals compared to sham exposed animals.
The authors conclude that exposure of rats to a 2.45 GHz electromagnetic field might induce histological changes and oxidative stress.

Study character:

Study funded by

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