Medical/biological study (experimental study)

Therapeutic approaches of melatonin in microwave radiations-induced oxidative stress-mediated toxicity on male fertility pattern of Wistar rats.

Published in: Electromagn Biol Med 2014; 33 (2): 81-91

Aim of study (acc. to author)

The effects of exposure of rats to a 2.45 GHz electromagnetic field on oxidative stress and damage in the testes and the protective effect of melatonin should be investigated.
Background/further details: Rats were divided into 4 groups (n=6 each): 1) exposure to the electromagnetic field, 2) treatment with melatonin (daily intraperitoneal injection of 2 mg/kg body weight), 3) exposure to the electromagnetic field and treatment with melatonin, 4) sham exposure (with daily sham injection).



Exposure Parameters
Exposure 1: 2.45 GHz
Modulation type: FM
Exposure duration: continuous for 2 h/day for 45 days
Exposure 1
Main characteristics
Frequency 2.45 GHz
Exposure duration continuous for 2 h/day for 45 days
Modulation type FM
Modulation frequency 50 Hz
Exposure setup
Exposure source
Chamber plexiglas cage ventilated with holes of 1 cm diameter
Setup a cage with six animals was kept in an anechoic chamber lined with radar absorbing material (attenuation 40 db); all six animals were facing the horn antenna
Sham exposure A sham exposure was conducted.
Measurand Value Type Method Mass Remarks
SAR 0.14 W/kg - estimated whole body -
power density 0.21 mW/cm² - measured - -
power 1,080 W - - - input power
power 700 W - - - output power
Reference articles
Exposed system:

Methods Endpoint/measurement parameters/methodology

Investigated material:
Investigated organ system:
Time of investigation:
  • during exposure
  • after exposure

Main outcome of study (acc. to author)

The relative testis weight, testosterone level, the enzyme activity of lactate dehydrogenase and the sperm count were significantly decreased in EMF-exposed rats (group 1) compared to the sham exposure group and histopathological damage was found as well. A simultaneous administration of melatonin (Group 3) negated these exposure-induced effects.
All parameters of oxidative stress (levels of reactive oxygen species, carbonyl proteins, malondialdehyde and enzyme activity of xanthine oxidase) as well as the DNA damage and apoptosis were significantly increased in EMF-exposed animals (Group 1) compared to the sham exposure group. Again, simultaneous administration of melatonin (group 3) significantly reduced these parameters in comparison to group 1.
Food and water intake did not shown any differences between the groups.
The authors conclude that exposure of rats to a 2.45 GHz electromagnetic field might damage the testes via oxidative stress and that melatonin could prevent these effects.
Study character:

Study funded by

  • Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), New Delhi, India

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