研究のタイプ: 疫学研究 (observational study)

[磁界と小児がん:高電圧地下ケーブルの影響に関する疫学調査] epidem.

Magnetic fields and childhood cancer: an epidemiological investigation of the effects of high-voltage underground cables.

掲載誌: J Radiol Prot 2015; 35 (3): 695-705

この疫学研究は、1962-2008年に発生した小児がんの症例52525と出生データをマッチさせた対照から成る大規模調査で、高電圧地下ケーブル(UGCs)と小児がん発生リスクとの関連を分析した。イングランドおよびウェールズにおいて、小児出生時の母親の住所に最寄りの275または400 kVの交流または高圧直流のUGCとその住所までの距離およびそれにより生じる磁界を計算した。UGCからの磁界ばく露した人は少数のため、統計的検出力には限界があった。結果として、小児白血病では、リスクと距離との関連、または磁界の増加に伴うリスク傾向についての何ら示唆は無かった;その他の小児がんリスクについても何も明確な傾向は示されなかった、と報告している。

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研究の目的(著者による)

A case-control study was conducted in the UK to investigate the association between the exposure to magnetic fields of high-voltage underground cables and the risk for childhood cancer.

詳細情報

Since decades, there is epidemiological evidence of an association between childhood leukemia and exposure to magnetic fields produced by high-voltage overhead lines. However, magnetic fields are not the only factor that varies in the vicinity of power lines, they also produce electric fields and corona ions. Furthermore, they are also visually prominent in their immediate vicinity, thus raising the possibility that they may influence other characteristics of a neighborhood, such as the people who live there or the types of houses that are subsequently built. Therefore it is important to try to separate potential magnetic field effects from non-magnetic field effects.
Underground cables produce also magnetic fields although confined to a smaller distance from the source compared to power lines. Unlike power lines, they produce no electric fields, no corona ions, have essentially no visual presence, and most nearby residents are unaware of their presence. The hypothesis is that if there is an association of childhood leukemia with underground cables, this would almost have to arise as a result of magnetic fields.
This study is based on the same study population as in the previous study by Bunch et al. (2014).

影響評価項目/リスク推定のタイプ

リスク推定のタイプ: (オッズ比(OR))

ばく露

ばく露評価

ばく露集団

グループ 説明
集団 1 distance of address at birth to nearest underground cable: 0 - 9.9 m
集団 2 distance of address at birth to nearest underground cable: 10 - 19.9 m
集団 3 distance of address at birth to nearest underground cable: 20 - 49.9 m
集団 4 distance of address at birth to nearest underground cable: 0 - 49.9 m
集団 5 distance of address at birth to nearest underground cable: 50 - 99.9 m
集団 6 distance of address at birth to nearest underground cable: 100 - 199.9 m
集団 7 distance of address at birth to nearest underground cable: 200 - 499.9 m
参照集団 8 distance of address at birth to nearest underground cable: ≥ 500 m
集団 9 magnetic flux density: > 0.4 µT
集団 10 magnetic flux density: 0.2 - 0.39 µT
集団 11 magnetic flux density: 0.1 - 0.19 µT
参照集団 12 magnetic flux density: < 0.1 µT

調査対象集団

症例集団

対照集団

調査規模

症例 対照
適格者 55,525 116,815
統計学的分析方法: (調整: )

結論(著者による)

No association between risk of the childhood leukemia and exposure to magnetic fields based on distance or magnetic flux densities estimations was found. No convincing pattern of risks for any other cancer was observed.
The authors conclude that the absence of risk detected in relation to underground cables tends to add to the argument that any risks from overhead lines may not be caused by magnetic fields.

研究の限界(著者による)

Few children were exposed to magnetic fields from underground cables limiting the statistical power.

研究助成

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