Distance between exposed object and exposure source
The exposure room was 2.6 m long x 2.2 m wide x 2.45 high. Sham exposed mice were housed in a separate room, only 1.8 m wide. The rooms were lined with overlapping sheets of 1-mm aluminium (-40 dB at 900 MHz). Each room contained a vertical ground plane (2.5 m x 2.2 m), running parallel to the wall, with a quarter-wave monopole antenna at the center.
Twenty Lucite® stands (15 cm x 30 cm) for mouse cages were mounted in a circular array perpendicular to the ground plane with their centers 0.65 m from the antenna. The mice were housed in groups of five in 18 x 15 x 30 cm filter-top transparent polycarbonate cages with a perforated glass lid.
The RF fields were measured using a broadband meter and an isotropic EFprobe at each of the 20 mouse cage positions (distal end of the stand) and at 10 mm from the ground plane. Empirical calculations of the SAR values using spheroidal models for various weight groups of five mice were derived from the RadiofrequencyDosimetry Handbook [Durney et al., 1986]. The SAR for a single mouse was determined experimentally because the range of body weights and fat content of the mice did not fit the Handbook. The accuracy was estimated at ± 1.6 dB [Anderson and Joyner, 1995]. Measurements were made at 900 MHzCW in three phantoms consisting of thin plastic shells filled with two tissue-equivalent gels and representing small, medium and large mice of 26, 34 and 64 g, respectively. A miniature isotropic field probe with 1.5-mm dipoles was inserted at 0.25, 0.5 and 0.75 of the length into the phantoms placed on the bore-sight at 0.7 m (far field) from the aperture of a coaxial-to-waveguide adapter.
Anderson V et al.
Specific absorption rate levels measured in a phantom head exposed to radio frequency transmissions from analog hand-held mobile phones.
Health effects: studies on tumor incidence in mice exposed to GSM cell-phone radiation.
Goldstein LS et al.
Further Comments on "Long-Term Exposure of Eµ-Pim1 Transgenic Mice to 898.4 MHz Microwaves does not Increase Lymphoma Incidence" by Utteridge et al. (Radiat. Res. 158, 357-364 2002).
Sommer AM et al.
Lymphoma Development in Mice Chronically Exposed to UMTS-Modulated Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Fields
Shirai T et al.
Lack of promoting effects of chronic exposure to 1.95-GHz W-CDMA signals for IMT-2000 cellular system on development of N-ethylnitrosourea-induced central nervous system tumors in F344 rats.