Study type: Medical/biological study (experimental study)

Carcinogenicity Study of 217 Hz Pulsed 900 MHz Electromagnetic Fields in Pim1 Transgenic Mice med./bio.

Published in: Radiat Res 2007; 168 (3): 316-326

Aim of study (acc. to author)

The issue of whether pulsed 900 MHz electromagnetic field exposure increases the incidence of tumors in transgenic mice should be investigated.

Background/further details

A total of 500 mice, 50 per sex per group, were exposed, sham-exposed or used as cage controls.
This study was one of two independent studies (second one: publication 9121) performed to investigate carcinogenic potential of radiofrequency exposure.



Exposure Parameters
Exposure 1: 900 MHz
Modulation type: pulsed
Exposure duration: repeated daily exposure, 1 h/day, for 18 months
  • SAR: 4 W/kg average over mass (whole body)
  • SAR: 1.4 W/kg average over mass (whole body)
  • SAR: 0.5 W/kg average over mass (whole body)

Exposure 1

Main characteristics
Frequency 900 MHz
  • guided field
Exposure duration repeated daily exposure, 1 h/day, for 18 months
Modulation type pulsed
Pulse width 0.577 ms
Repetition frequency 217 Hz
Exposure setup
Exposure source
Chamber The Ferris wheel concept developed by Balzano et al. [2000] was adopted and optimised for this study. The exposure system consisted of four "Ferris wheel" exposure units, each exposing up to 65 animals at a different SAR (high, medium, low and sham).
Setup Each wheel consisted of two parallel, circular, stainless-steel metal plates 117 mm apart, with a conical antenna in their center and stainless-steel poles short-circuiting the cylindrical cavity at a radius of 755 mm.
Sham exposure A sham exposure was conducted.
Additional info The positions of the animals, restrained in plastic tubes similar to those approved and used for inhalation studies, were optimized for maximum uniformity. Missing animals were replaced by conical plastic tubes filled with 36 ml of liquid, simulating the dielectric parameters of muscle tissue.
Measurand Value Type Method Mass Remarks
SAR 4 W/kg average over mass - whole body -
SAR 1.4 W/kg average over mass - whole body -
SAR 0.5 W/kg average over mass - whole body -

Reference articles

  • Kuster N et al. (2006): Methodology of detailed dosimetry and treatment of uncertainty and variations for in vivo studies
  • Ebert S et al. (2005): Response, thermal regulatory threshold and thermal breakdown threshold of restrained RF-exposed mice at 905 MHz
  • Balzano Q et al. (2000): An efficient RF exposure system with precise whole-body average SAR determination for in vivo animal studies at 900 MHz
  • Repacholi MH et al. (1997): Lymphomas in Eµ-Pim1 transgenic mice exposed to pulsed 900 MHz electromagnetic fields

Exposed system:

Methods Endpoint/measurement parameters/methodology

Investigated system:
Investigated organ system:
Time of investigation:
  • before exposure
  • during exposure
  • after exposure

Main outcome of study (acc. to author)

No significant effect of the radiofrequency irradiation under the exposure conditions used was found on the incidence of any neoplastic or non-neoplastic lesion, and thus these data did not provide evidence that radiofrequency irradiation possesses carcinogenic potential.

Study character:

Study funded by

Replicated studies

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