Study type: Medical/biological study (experimental study)

No effects of GSM-modulated 900 MHz electromagnetic fields on survival rate and spontaneous development of lymphoma in female AKR/J mice med./bio.

Published in: BMC Cancer 2004; 4: 77

Aim of study (acc. to author)

To study whether 900 MHz electromagnetic field exposure influences lymphoma development in a mouse strain that is genetically predisposed to this disease: The AKR/J mice genome carries a virus, which leads within one year to spontaneous development of thymic lymphoblastic lymphoma.



Exposure Parameters
Exposure 1: 900 MHz
Modulation type: pulsed
Exposure duration: continuous for about 40 weeks
  • power: 35 W average over time
  • SAR: 0.4 W/kg mean (whole body)

Exposure 1

Main characteristics
Frequency 900 MHz
  • guided field
Exposure duration continuous for about 40 weeks
Modulation type pulsed
Repetition frequency 217 Hz
Additional info

Synthetic GSM modulation pulse pattern and frequency spectrum simulating a typical GSM scenario, combining the emissions from a base station (downlink) with those from a mobile phone in DTX operation mode (uplink), thus including 2 Hz, 8 Hz, 217 Hz, and 1733 Hz frequency components.

Exposure setup
Exposure source
Chamber Both waveguides (exposure and sham-exposure) of 4 m diameter and 17 cm vertical plate distance were placed within the same room and carried up to 24 cages measuring 425 mm Π265 mm Π160 mm (L ΠW ΠH) each of them housing 6-7 mice. The cage area was covered with trapezoidal lids (3 cages per opening) with wire mesh. At the outer boundaries of the units, absorbers were installed.
Setup A modulated signal generator and an amplifier were connected to the cone antenna of one unit (and also the presence of the field was monitored continuously) via a "black box" so that it could not be seen which group of animals was exposed (blind design).
Additional info Because the plate distance of the radial waveguide had to be chosen larger than half the wavelength due to the regulated height of the cages, special modifications of the fundamental geometry had to be performed to obtain only the fundamental TEM-mode and avoid the propagation of the unwanted higher order modes.
Measurand Value Type Method Mass Remarks
power 35 W average over time - - -
SAR 0.4 W/kg mean calculated whole body -

Reference articles

Exposed system:

Methods Endpoint/measurement parameters/methodology

Investigated system:
Investigated organ system:
Time of investigation:
  • during exposure
  • after exposure

Main outcome of study (acc. to author)

Electromagnetic field exposure had a significant effect on body weight gain, with higher values in exposed than in sham-exposed mice. Survival rate and lymphoma incidence did not differ between exposed and sham-exposed mice. These results do not support the hypothesis that exposure to 900 MHz electromagnetic fields is a significant risk factor for developing lymphoma in a genetically predisposed species.

Study character:

Study funded by

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