Study type: Medical/biological study (experimental study)

Selenium and L-Carnitine Reduce Oxidative Stress in the Heart of Rat Induced by 2.45-GHz Radiation from Wireless Devices. med./bio.

Published in: Biol Trace Elem Res 2011; 143 (3): 1640-1650

Aim of study (acc. to author)

To study the effects of 2.45 GHz electromagnetic field exposure on oxidant-antioxidant changes in the heart of rats and the possible protective effects of a L-carnitine and selenium.

Background/further details

30 male rats were divided into five groups: 1) cage control; 2) sham exposure; 3) 2.45 GHz exposure; 4) 2.45 GHz exposure + selenium (injection of 1.5 mg/kg/day); 5) 2.45 GHz exposure + L-carnitine (injection of 1.5 mg/kg/day). The first dose of selenium and L-carnitine was administered 24 h before exposure.



Exposure Parameters
Exposure 1: 2.45 GHz
Modulation type: pulsed
Exposure duration: continuous for 1 h/day on 28 days

General information

rats were treated in five groups: i) cage control ii) sham exposure iii) EMF exposure iv) EMF exposure + intraperitoneal injections of sodium selenite at a dose of 1.5 mg/kg/day v) EMF exposure + intraperitoneal injections of L-carnitine at a dose of 1.5 mg/kg/day

Exposure 1

Main characteristics
Frequency 2.45 GHz
Exposure duration continuous for 1 h/day on 28 days
Modulation type pulsed
Repetition frequency 217 Hz
Exposure setup
Exposure source
Setup rats placed in individual 15 cm x 5 cm PVC containers, arranged on a Plexiglas base in a circle round the antenna with the rats' noses close to it; exposure system placed in a Faraday cage
Sham exposure A sham exposure was conducted.
Measurand Value Type Method Mass Remarks
power 2 W maximum - - -
electric field strength 11 V/m spatial average measured - -
SAR 0.1 W/kg average over mass calculated whole body at E = 11 V/m
electric field strength 45.5 V/m maximum measured - -
SAR 2.4 W/kg maximum calculated whole body at E = 45.5 V/m d: bei

Reference articles

Exposed system:

Methods Endpoint/measurement parameters/methodology

Investigated material:
Investigated organ system:
Time of investigation:
  • after exposure

Main outcome of study (acc. to author)

The lipid peroxidation levels were higher in the exposed group than in the cage control and sham exposed group. The lipid peroxidation levels in the irradiated animals treated with selenium and L -carnitine were lower than in those that were only exposed to 2.45 GHz irradiation.
The concentrations of vitamin A, vitamin C, and vitamin E were lower in the exposed-only group relative to cage control and sham exposed group, but their concentrations were increased in the exposed groups treated with selenium- and L-carnitine. The enzyme activity of glutathione peroxidase was higher in the selenium-treated group than in the animals that were exposed to the electromagnetic field but received no treatment. The glutathione and beta-carotene concentrations did not change in any of the groups.
In conclusion, 2.45 GHz electromagnetic field exposure caused oxidative stress in the heart of rats. There was a protective effect of selenium and L-carnitine.

Study character:

Study funded by

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