30 male rats were divided into five groups: 1) cage control; 2) sham exposure; 3) 2.45 GHz exposure; 4) 2.45 GHz exposure + selenium (injection of 1.5 mg/kg/day); 5) 2.45 GHz exposure + L-carnitine (injection of 1.5 mg/kg/day). The first dose of selenium and L-carnitine was administered 24 h before exposure.
Modulation type: pulsed
Exposure duration: continuous for 1 h/day on 28 days
rats were treated in five groups: i) cage control ii) sham exposure iii) EMF exposure iv) EMF exposure + intraperitoneal injections of sodium selenite at a dose of 1.5 mg/kg/day v) EMF exposure + intraperitoneal injections of L-carnitine at a dose of 1.5 mg/kg/day
|Exposure duration||continuous for 1 h/day on 28 days|
|Repetition frequency||217 Hz|
|electric field strength||11 V/m||spatial average||measured||-||-|
|SAR||0.1 W/kg||average over mass||calculated||whole body||at E = 11 V/m|
|electric field strength||45.5 V/m||maximum||measured||-||-|
|SAR||2.4 W/kg||maximum||calculated||whole body||at E = 45.5 V/m d: bei|
The lipid peroxidation levels were higher in the exposed group than in the cage control and sham exposed group. The lipid peroxidation levels in the irradiated animals treated with selenium and L -carnitine were lower than in those that were only exposed to 2.45 GHz irradiation.
The concentrations of vitamin A, vitamin C, and vitamin E were lower in the exposed-only group relative to cage control and sham exposed group, but their concentrations were increased in the exposed groups treated with selenium- and L-carnitine. The enzyme activity of glutathione peroxidase was higher in the selenium-treated group than in the animals that were exposed to the electromagnetic field but received no treatment. The glutathione and beta-carotene concentrations did not change in any of the groups.
In conclusion, 2.45 GHz electromagnetic field exposure caused oxidative stress in the heart of rats. There was a protective effect of selenium and L-carnitine.