Study type: Medical/biological study (experimental study)

Effects of Selenium and L-Carnitine on Oxidative Stress in Blood of Rat Induced by 2.45-GHz Radiation from Wireless Devices. med./bio.

Published in: Biol Trace Elem Res 2009; 132 (1-3): 153-163

Aim of study (acc. to author)

To study the effects of 2.45 GHz electromagnetic field exposure on oxidant-antioxidant changes in rat blood and the possible protective effects of a L-carnitine and selenium.

Background/further details

30 male rats were divided into five groups: 1) cage control; 2) sham exposure; 3) 2.45 GHz exposure; 4) 2.45 GHz exposure + selenium; 5) 2.45 GHz exposure + L-carnitine. The first dose of selenium and L-carnitine was administered 24 h before exposure.



Exposure Parameters
Exposure 1: 2.45 GHz
Modulation type: pulsed
Exposure duration: continuous for 1 h/day on 28 days

General information

rats were treated in five groups: i) control ii) sham exposure iii) EMF exposure iv) EMF exposure + selenium v) EMF exposure + L-carnitine

Exposure 1

Main characteristics
Frequency 2.45 GHz
Exposure duration continuous for 1 h/day on 28 days
Modulation type pulsed
Repetition frequency 217 Hz
Exposure setup
Exposure source
Setup antenna placed in the center of a round table that held 6 PVC cylinder containers (15 cm x 5 cm) for the rats so that the rats' noses were close to the antenna; exposure system kept in a Faraday cage
Sham exposure A sham exposure was conducted.
Measurand Value Type Method Mass Remarks
electric field strength 45.5346 V/m maximum measured - -
electric field strength 11.0705 V/m average over time measured - -
SAR 0.1 W/kg - - whole body at 11 V/m
power 2 W maximum - - -

Exposed system:

Methods Endpoint/measurement parameters/methodology

Investigated material:
Investigated organ system:
Time of investigation:
  • after exposure

Main outcome of study (acc. to author)

The lipid peroxidation levels in plasma and erythrocytes were significantly higher in the exposure (group 3) than in the control groups (group 1 and 2), although the reduced glutathione and glutathione peroxidase values were slightly lower in erythrocytes of the exposure group compared to the control groups.
The data showed reduced erythrocyte glutathione levels in the exposure group compared to group 5 (exposure + L-carnitine). Erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase enzyme activity in sham exposure group, exposure group, and "exposure + selenium" group (group 4) were lower than in group 5 (exposure + L-carnitine).
The authors conclude, that 2.45 GHz electromagnetic field exposure caused oxidative stress in blood of rats. L-carnitine seems to have protective effects on the 2.45-GHz-induced blood toxicity. Selenium has no effect on the investigated values.

Study character:

Study funded by

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