Study type: Medical/biological study (experimental study)

Modulator effects of L-carnitine and selenium on wireless devices (2.45 GHz)-induced oxidative stress and electroencephalography records in brain of rat. med./bio.

Published in: Int J Radiat Biol 2009; 85 (8): 680-689

Aim of study (acc. to author)

To investigate the effects of 2.45 GHz exposure on the brain antioxidant redox system and EEG in rats, as well as protective effects of selenium and L-carnitine on brain oxidative injury induced by electromagnetic exposure.

Background/further details

Selenium is an essential trace element which plays an important role in a number of biological processes. L-carnitine is an essential co-factor in the metabolism of lipids and in the production of cellular energy.
30 male rats were divided into five groups: 1) cage control; 2) sham exposure; 3) 2.45 GHz exposure; 4) 2.45 GHz exposure + selenium; 5) 2.45 GHz exposure + L-carnitine. The first dose of selenium and L-carnitine was administered 24 h before exposure. Before sacrificing the animals EEG recordings were taken.



Exposure Parameters
Exposure 1: 2.45 GHz
Modulation type: pulsed
Exposure duration: continuous for 60 min/day, for 28 days
  • power: 2 W maximum
  • SAR: 0.1 W/kg average over mass (whole body)
  • SAR: 1.73 W/kg average over mass (brain)

General information

animals were divided into five groups: i) cage control ii)sham control iii) exposure to EMF iv) exposure to EMF + selenium v) exposure to EMF + L-carnitine

Exposure 1

Main characteristics
Frequency 2.45 GHz
Exposure duration continuous for 60 min/day, for 28 days
Modulation type pulsed
Repetition frequency 217 Hz
Exposure setup
Exposure source
Setup rats kept in 15 cm long cylindrical constrainers with a diameter of 5 cm so that the rats' noses were in close contact with the antenna; exposure system positioned inside a faraday cage
Sham exposure A sham exposure was conducted.
Measurand Value Type Method Mass Remarks
power 2 W maximum - - -
SAR 0.1 W/kg average over mass - whole body -
SAR 1.73 W/kg average over mass calculated brain -

Exposed system:

Methods Endpoint/measurement parameters/methodology

Investigated system:
Investigated organ system:
Time of investigation:
  • before exposure
  • during exposure
  • after exposure

Main outcome of study (acc. to author)

The concentrations of the antioxidant vitamin A, vitamin C and vitamin E were significantly lower in the exposure group (3) than in the control groups (1, 2). The groups 4 and 5 had significantly higher vitamin concentrations than the exposure group (3). Regarding the mean glutathione level, glutathione peroxidase enzyme activity and ß-carotene values, no significant differences between the five groups were observed. Only in group 4 the glutathione peroxidase enzyme acitivity was significantly higher than in group 1. Lipid peroxidation was significantly lower in group 4 and 5 compared to group 1, 2 and 3, indicating an effect of selenium and L-carnitine. However, lipid peroxidation was not affected by 2.45 GHz exposure compared to the control groups (1, 2).
During the EEG recordings, the 2.45 GHz exposure did not affect spike numbers, but in group 4 and 5 they were significantly decreased compared to the exposure group (3).
L-carnithine and selenium seemed to have protective effects on the 2.45 GHz induced decrease of vitamins. The L-carnitine administration seemed to be more protective than the selenium administration.

Study character:

Study funded by

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