Study type: Medical/biological study (experimental study)

2.45-Gz wireless devices induce oxidative stress and proliferation through cytosolic Ca(2+) influx in human leukemia cancer cells. med./bio.

Published in: Int J Radiat Biol 2012; 88 (6): 449-456

Aim of study (acc. to author)

To determine the effects of a 2.45 GHz exposure on the antioxidant system, calcium ion signal transmission, cell count and cell viability in human leukemia cells.

Background/further details

The cell cultures were equally divided into two groups (control and exposure group) and then subdivided into four different subgroups depending on the duration of exposure (1, 2, 12 and 24 hours). The study protocol was repeated six times for every time of exposure.

Endpoint

Exposure

Exposure Parameters
Exposure 1: 2.45 GHz
Modulation type: pulsed
Exposure duration: continuous for 1, 2, 12 or 24 h
  • power: 2 W maximum
  • SAR: 0.1 W/kg spatial average (on top of the flasks' surface at E = 10 V/m d: an der Flaschenoberfläche bei)
  • SAR: 1.3 W/kg spatial average (on the flasks' surface at an antenna distance of 17 and 18 cm (samples 3, 4 and 6))
  • SAR: 1.5 W/kg spatial average (on the flasks' surface at an antenna distance of 15 cm (sample 5))
  • SAR: 1.9 W/kg spatial average (on the flasks' surface at an antenna distance of 12 cm (sample 1))
  • SAR: 2.5 W/kg spatial average (on the flasks' surface at an antenna distance of 9 cm (sample 2))

Exposure 1

Main characteristics
Frequency 2.45 GHz
Type
Exposure duration continuous for 1, 2, 12 or 24 h
Modulation
Modulation type pulsed
Repetition frequency 217 Hz
Exposure setup
Exposure source
  • monopole
Setup half-wave monopole antenna placed between two PVC water bathes; each water bath contained eight sterile 250 ml flasks placed equidistant in two rows (Figure shows only 6 flasks; remark EMF-Portal); exposure device placed on a wooden table
Parameters
Measurand Value Type Method Mass Remarks
power 2 W maximum - - -
SAR 0.1 W/kg spatial average calculated - on top of the flasks' surface at E = 10 V/m d: an der Flaschenoberfläche bei
SAR 1.3 W/kg spatial average calculated - on the flasks' surface at an antenna distance of 17 and 18 cm (samples 3, 4 and 6)
SAR 1.5 W/kg spatial average calculated - on the flasks' surface at an antenna distance of 15 cm (sample 5)
SAR 1.9 W/kg spatial average calculated - on the flasks' surface at an antenna distance of 12 cm (sample 1)
SAR 2.5 W/kg spatial average calculated - on the flasks' surface at an antenna distance of 9 cm (sample 2)

Reference articles

  • Naziroglu M et al. (2012): Melatonin modulates wireless (2.45 GHz)-induced oxidative injury through TRPM2 and voltage gated Ca(2+) channels in brain and dorsal root ganglion in rat.
  • Gumral N et al. (2009): Effects of Selenium and L-Carnitine on Oxidative Stress in Blood of Rat Induced by 2.45-GHz Radiation from Wireless Devices.
  • Naziroglu M et al. (2009): Modulator effects of L-carnitine and selenium on wireless devices (2.45 GHz)-induced oxidative stress and electroencephalography records in brain of rat.

Exposed system:

Methods Endpoint/measurement parameters/methodology

Investigated material:
Time of investigation:
  • after exposure

Main outcome of study (acc. to author)

The values of the lipid peroxidation were significantly higher in the exposed samples in comparison to the control samples at the same experimental times (at 1, 2, 12 and 24 h, respectively). The values of glutathione peroxidase, reduced glutathione and vitamin C did not show any statistically significant changes among the groups.
The cytosolic calcium concentration increased over the time in all groups, with the highest values after 24 hours. However, in the exposed samples, the concentrations of calcium ions were significantly higher than those in the control samples after the same experimental period. An addition of the TRPM2 channel blocker 2-APB to the exposed samples yielded in a decreased calcium concentration in comparison to the control and to the exposed samples without 2-APB at every experimental time.
The cell numbers were significantly higher in the exposed groups than in the control groups.
The authors conclude that a 2,45 GHz exposure could increase the cell proliferation in human leukemia cells, probably induced through cytosolic calcium release and oxidative stress.

Study character:

Study funded by

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