Home
Medical/biological study (experimental study)

Evaluation of the cytogenotoxic damage in immature and mature rats exposed to 900 MHz radiofrequency electromagnetic fields.

Published in: Int J Radiat Biol 2013; 89 (11): 985-992

Aim of study (acc. to author)

To examine whether exposure to electromagnetic fields has a genotoxic and cytotoxic effect on bone marrow cells in immature (2 weeks old) and mature (10 weeks old) rats.
Background/further details: The following groups of rats were examined (n=8 per group): 1.) immature rats, killed directly after sham exposure period, 2.) immature rats, killed directly after exposure period, 3.) immature rats, killed 15 days after exposure period, 4.) mature rats, killed directly after sham exposure period, 5.) mature rats, killed directly after exposure period and 6.) mature rats, killed 15 days after exposure period.
Four rats were used for the micronucleus test and four rats for the chromosomal analysis and mitotic index.

Endpoint

Exposure

Exposure Parameters
Exposure 1: 900 MHz
Modulation type: CW
Exposure duration: continuous for 2 h/day for 45 days
General information
Rats were divided into six groups with eight animals each: i) immature control group ii) immature rats exposed to EMF iii) immature rats granted a recovery period of 15 days after exposure termination iv) mature control group v) mature rats exposed to EMF vi) mature rats granted a recovery period of 15 days after exposure termination
Exposure 1
Main characteristics
Frequency 900 MHz
Type
Exposure duration continuous for 2 h/day for 45 days
Modulation
Modulation type CW
Exposure setup
Exposure source
  • GSM simulator
Chamber rats were exposed in a pie cage restrainer for 12 rats made of plexiglas with several air holes; galvanized plate (1mm thick) was placed at the bottom for grounding of the static field
Setup antenna heights were approximately 15 cm; antenna was located in the middle of the pie cage restrainer and fixed as closely as possible to the whole body of the rat (about 6 cm from the head)
Sham exposure A sham exposure was conducted.
Parameters
Measurand Value Type Method Mass Remarks
power 2 W - - - applied output power
SAR 0.76 W/kg mean calculated whole body 0.38-0.78 W/kg (for immature rats)
SAR 0.37 W/kg mean calculated whole body 0.31-0.52 W/kg (for mature rats)
electric field strength 28.1 V/m mean measured - ± 4.8 V/m (for immature rats)
electric field strength 20 V/m mean measured - ± 3.2 V/m (for mature rats)
Measurement and calculation details
background levels of other RF sources in the laboratory were measured with a spectrum analyzer/satellite receiver and an electrical field meter, stability of the frequency system was checked every week by using a spectrum analyzer
Reference articles
Exposed system:

Methods Endpoint/measurement parameters/methodology

Investigated material:
Time of investigation:
  • after exposure

Main outcome of study (acc. to author)

The data showed significant increases in chromosome aberrations and micronucleus frequency, while the mitotic index and the ratio of polychromatic erythrocytes was significantly decreased in bone marrow cells of all exposure groups compared with the control group. Additionally, the cytotoxic and genotoxic damage was more remarkable in immature rats than in mature rats. The 15 days of recovery period was insufficient to compensate the genotoxic damage in immature rats after exposure.
Study character:

Study funded by

  • not stated/no funding

Related articles

  • Sekeroglu V et al. (2012): Cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of high-frequency electromagnetic fields (GSM 1800MHz) on immature and mature rats.
  • Trosic I et al. (2011): Effect of electromagnetic radiofrequency radiation on the rats' brain, liver and kidney cells measured by comet assay.
  • Gurbuz N et al. (2010): Is There Any Possible Genotoxic Effect in Exfoliated Bladder Cells of Rat Under the Exposure of 1800 MHz GSM-Like Modulated Radio Frequency Radiation (RFR)?
  • Ziemann C et al. (2009): Absence of genotoxic potential of 902 MHz (GSM) and 1747 MHz (DCS) wireless communication signals: In vivo two-year bioassay in B6C3F1 mice.
  • Juutilainen J et al. (2007): Micronucleus frequency in erythrocytes of mice after long-term exposure to radiofrequency radiation.
  • Ferreira AR et al. (2006): Ultra high frequency-electromagnetic field irradiation during pregnancy leads to an increase in erythrocytes micronuclei incidence in rat offspring.
  • Verschaeve L et al. (2006): Investigation of co-genotoxic effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields in vivo.
  • Belyaev IY et al. (2006): Exposure of rat brain to 915 MHz GSM microwaves induces changes in gene expression but not double stranded DNA breaks or effects on chromatin conformation.
  • Gorlitz BD et al. (2005): Effects of 1-week and 6-week exposure to GSM/DCS radiofrequency radiation on micronucleus formation in B6C3F1 mice.
  • Vijayalaxmi et al. (2004): Micronuclei in peripheral blood and bone marrow cells of mice exposed to 42 GHz electromagnetic millimeter waves.
  • Vijayalaxmi et al. (2003): Genotoxic potential of 1.6 GHz wireless communication signal: in vivo two-year bioassay.
  • Vijayalaxmi et al. (2001): Micronuclei in the peripheral blood and bone marrow cells of rats exposed to 2450 MHz radiofrequency radiation.
  • Vijayalaxmi et al. (1997): Frequency of micronuclei in the peripheral blood and bone marrow of cancer-prone mice chronically exposed to 2450 MHz radiofrequency radiation.
  • McRee DI et al. (1981): Incidence of sister chromatid exchange in bone marrow cells of the mouse following microwave exposure.