Study type: Medical/biological study (experimental study)

Cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of high-frequency electromagnetic fields (GSM 1800MHz) on immature and mature rats med./bio.

Published in: Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2012; 80: 140-144

Aim of study (acc. to author)

To study the potential cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of long-term (45 days) exposure to 1800 MHz electromagnetic fields on bone marrow cells in immature and mature rats.

Background/further details

24 immature (two weeks old) and 24 mature (ten weeks old) rats were divided into six groups (each group n=8): 1) immature control group, 2) immature exposure group, 3) immature exposure group + recovery period of 15 days, 4) mature control group, 5) mature exposure group, 6) mature exposure group + recovery period of 15 days.
Bone marrow cells were collected from both femurs. Four rats were used for the micronucleus test and four rats for the chromosomal analysis and mitotic index.



Exposure Parameters
Exposure 1: 1,800 MHz
Modulation type: pulsed
Exposure duration: continuous for two hours/day for 45 days

General information

Rats were divided into six groups with eight animals each: i) immature control group ii) immature rats exposed to EMF iii) immature rats granted a recovery period of 15 days after exposure termination iv) mature control group v) mature rats exposed to EMF vi) mature rats granted a recovery period of 15 days after exposure termination

Exposure 1

Main characteristics
Frequency 1,800 MHz
  • circular
Exposure duration continuous for two hours/day for 45 days
Modulation type pulsed
Repetition frequency 217 Hz
Exposure setup
Exposure source
  • monopole
Distance between exposed object and exposure source 4 cm
Chamber pie cage plexiglas restrainer with twelve slices: one rat/slice; numerous holes for air condition at the top of the restrainer
Setup antenna (height: 15 cm) located in the middle of the pie cage; antenna fixed about 4 cm from the head (due to movements of rats, the distance ranged from 4 to 8 cm)
Additional info band interval of GSM modulator: 1750 - 1850 MHz
Measurand Value Type Method Mass Remarks
SAR 0.37 W/kg - - whole body immature rats
SAR 0.49 W/kg - - whole body mature rats
electric field strength 16.62 V/m mean calculated - ± 1,67 V/m (mature rats)
electric field strength 16.96 V/m mean calculated - ± 5,39 V/m (immature rats)
power 2 W maximum - - (power of the GSM modulator)

Reference articles

  • Aydin B et al. (2011): Effects of a 900-MHz electromagnetic field on oxidative stress parameters in rat lymphoid organs, polymorphonuclear leukocytes and plasma
  • Dasdag S et al. (2009): Effect of mobile phone exposure on apoptotic glial cells and status of oxidative stress in rat brain
  • Koyu A et al. (2005): Effects of 900MHz electromagnetic field on TSH and thyroid hormones in rats

Exposed system:

Methods Endpoint/measurement parameters/methodology

Investigated system:
Time of investigation:
  • after exposure

Main outcome of study (acc. to author)

The data showed significant differences in chromosome aberrations (increase), the micronucleus frequency (increase), mitotic index (decrease) and the ratio of polychromatic erythrocytes (decrease) in bone marrow cells of all exposure groups compared with the control group. Additionally, the cytotoxic and genotoxic damage was more remarkable in immature rats than in mature rats. The 15 days of recovery period was insufficient to compensate the genotoxic damage in immature rats after exposure.

Study character:

Study funded by

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