Study type: Medical/biological study (experimental study)

Absence of genotoxic potential of 902 MHz (GSM) and 1747 MHz (DCS) wireless communication signals: In vivo two-year bioassay in B6C3F1 mice. med./bio.

Published in: Int J Radiat Biol 2009; 85 (5): 454-464

Aim of study (acc. to author)

To investigate the frequency of micronuclei (as marker for genetic damage) in peripheral blood erythrocytes of mice that had been chronically exposed to radiofrequencies used for mobile communication.

Background/further details

1170 mice (585 males) were randomized into exposure groups, sham exposure groups and a cage control. Two frequencies (GSM/ 902 MHz and DCS/1747 MHz) were investigated and exposure level varied from low, medium to high. In all experimental conditions 50 animals of each sex were investigated for a two-year period and evaluation of micronuclei was performed after on survivors only. After the two years 6 sentinel mice (3 males) were used as positive control: they were injected with mitomycin C.

Endpoint

Exposure

Exposure Parameters
Exposure 1: 902 MHz
Exposure duration: continuous for 2 h/day, 5 days/weeks for 2 years (see also add. information for exp. setup)
Exposure 2: 1,747 MHz
Exposure duration: continuous for 2 h/day, 5 days/weeks for 2 years (see also add. information for exp. setup)

Exposure 1

Main characteristics
Frequency 902 MHz
Type
Exposure duration continuous for 2 h/day, 5 days/weeks for 2 years (see also add. information for exp. setup)
Exposure setup
Exposure source
Setup two parallel circular stainless steel plates placed 117 mm apart with a conical antenna in their center and stainless steel posts forming a cylindrical cavity of 755 mm radius, whre mice were placed in plastic tubes
Sham exposure A sham exposure was conducted.
Additional info 2 h daily exposure devided into three phases: phase 1: DTX mode simulating continuous talking phase 2: GSM talk simulating a conversation, i.e. temporal switching between DTX and non-DTX mode phase 3: GSM environment = non-DTX, DTX, power control, handovers according to their statistical occurrence during a conversation
Parameters
Measurand Value Type Method Mass Remarks
SAR 0.4 W/kg maximum - whole body low exposure group
SAR 1.3 W/kg maximum - whole body medium exposure group
SAR 4 W/kg maximum - whole body high exposure group
SAR 0.18 W/kg peak value - partial body low exposure group
SAR 1.9 W/kg peak value - partial body high exposure group

Exposure 2

Main characteristics
Frequency 1,747 MHz
Type
Exposure duration continuous for 2 h/day, 5 days/weeks for 2 years (see also add. information for exp. setup)
Exposure setup
Exposure source
Setup two parallel circular stainless steel plates placed 117 mm apart with a bi-conical antenna in their center and stainless steel posts forming a cylindrical cavity of 755 mm radius, whre mice were placed in plastic tubes
Sham exposure A sham exposure was conducted.
Additional info 2 h daily exposure devided into three phases: phase 1: DTX mode simulating continuous talking phase 2: GSM talk simulating a conversation, i.e. temporal switching between DTX and non-DTX mode phase 3: GSM environment = non-DTX, DTX, power control, handovers according to their statistical occurrence during a conversation
Parameters
Measurand Value Type Method Mass Remarks
SAR 0.4 W/kg maximum - whole body low exposure group
SAR 1.3 W/kg maximum - whole body medium exposure group
SAR 4 W/kg maximum - whole body high exposure group
SAR 0.14 W/kg peak value - partial body low exposure group
SAR 3.3 W/kg peak value - partial body high exposure group

Reference articles

Exposed system:

Methods Endpoint/measurement parameters/methodology

Investigated system:
Time of investigation:
  • after exposure

Main outcome of study (acc. to author)

The average number of survivors analyzed per treatment group was 39. There were no significant differences in the frequency of micronuclei between radiofrequency-exposed, sham-exposed, and cage control mice, irrespective of the staining/counting method used. Micronuclei were significantly increased in polychromatic and normochromatic erythrocytes of the positive control mice.
The data did not indicate radiofrequency-induced genotoxicity in mice after two years of exposure.

Study character:

Study funded by

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