Study type: Medical/biological study (experimental study)

Investigation of co-genotoxic effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields in vivo. med./bio.

Published in: Radiat Res 2006; 165 (5): 598-607

Aim of study (acc. to author)

To study the possible genotoxic effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (mobile phone signal) combined with the drinking water mutagen and carcinogen 3-chloro-4-dichloromethyl-5-hydroxy-2-5H-furanone (MX) in rats.

Background/further details

MX was given in the drinking water at a concentration of 19 µg/ml. Blood samples were taken at 3, 6 and 24 months of exposure.



Exposure Parameters
Exposure 1: 900 MHz
Modulation type: pulsed
Exposure duration: repeated daily exposure, 2 h/day, 5 days/week, for 24 months
  • SAR: 0.3 W/kg mean (whole body) (0.07-0.65 W/kg)
  • SAR: 0.9 W/kg mean (whole body) (0.21-1.9 W/kg)

Exposure 1

Main characteristics
Frequency 900 MHz
  • guided field
Exposure duration repeated daily exposure, 2 h/day, 5 days/week, for 24 months
Additional info Reference article: L. Puranen, A. Turunen, T. Toivo, A-P. Sihvonen, S. Rautio, T. Toivonen, K. Jokela, R. Pitkäho, K. Laukkanen and J. Juutilainen, Space efficient system for whole-body exposure of unrestrained rats to 900 MHz electromagnetic fields. Bioelectromagnetics, in press.
Modulation type pulsed
Repetition frequency 217 Hz
Additional info

continuous transmission of GSM pulses

Exposure setup
Exposure source
Chamber Nine radial transmission line (RTL) exposure chambers were used, three for each exposure condition [Puranen et al.]. Each chamber consisted of two horizontal circular aluminium plates with 150 cm diameter and 15 cm separation.
Setup 24 truncated wedge-shaped polycarbonate cages, each containing an unrestrained rat, were placed in the chamber with their wider end near the absorbing material. A monopole antenna at the center of the lower plate generated a radial plane wave. The EF was vertical (perpendicular to the plates) and the MF was circumferential, parallel to the plates.
Sham exposure A sham exposure was conducted.
Additional info Four groups of 72 animals each were treated as follows: cage control, MX + sham exposure, MX + 0.3 W/kg, and MX + 0.9 W/kg.
Measurand Value Type Method Mass Remarks
SAR 0.3 W/kg mean measured and calculated whole body 0.07-0.65 W/kg
SAR 0.9 W/kg mean measured and calculated whole body 0.21-1.9 W/kg

Reference articles

Exposed system:

Methods Endpoint/measurement parameters/methodology

Investigated system:
Investigated organ system:
Time of investigation:
  • during exposure
  • after exposure

Main outcome of study (acc. to author)

No significant genotoxic activity of MX in blood and liver cells was found. However, MX induced DNA damage in rat brain. Co-exposures to MX and radiofrequency irradiation did not significantly increase the response of blood, liver and brain cells compared to MX exposure alone.
In conclusion, this long-term animal study involving radiofrequency and MX exposure, did not show any co-genotoxic effects between these two agents.

Study character:

Study funded by

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