The mice were kept in small cylindrical acrylic restrainers (inner diameter 32 mm, length adjustable) placed on a Styrofoam holder in the center of the cross section of the waveguide with their longitudinal axes perpendicular to the EF and to the direction of propagation.
In study 1, all animals, except the cage-controls, were exposed to 4 Gy of X-rays in three equal fractions of 1.33 Gy at 1-week intervals during the first three weeks of the experiment [Heikkinen et al., 2001]. The background 50 Hz MFs were below 0.09 µT. The geomagnetic flux density measured with a fluxgate magnetometer varied between 41 and 54 µT (inclination 80-90°) in study 1.
Measurement and calculation details
The input, reflected and output powers were measured using RFpower meters at the input and output of both exposure chambers. The SAR was controlled daily by adjusting the input power. The calculated maximum local SAR values inside the mice were 4-8 times higher than the whole-body average value and decreased with increasing animal size.
In study 2, all animals, except the cage-controls, were exposed to UVradiation three times/week [Heikkinen et al., 2003] at 1.2 human MED (minimum erythema dose), i.e., a dose of 240 J/m², calculated according to the CIE (Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage) wavelength weighing function [McKinlay and Diffey, 1987]. The background 50 Hz MFs were below 0.09 µT. The geomagnetic flux density measured with a fluxgate magnetometer varied between 50 and 55 µT (inclination 60-80°) in study 2. The animals in study 2 were exposed to average ELF MFs (measured with a small calibrated coil) of 5 µT during shaving with an electric clipper and of 0.6-1.4 µT during the UV-exposure.
Ziemann C et al.
Absence of genotoxic potential of 902 MHz (GSM) and 1747 MHz (DCS) wireless communication signals: In vivo two-year bioassay in B6C3F1 mice
Gajski G et al.
Radioprotective effects of honeybee venom (Apis mellifera) against 915-MHz microwave radiation-induced DNA damage in wistar rat lymphocytes: in vitro study
Yadav AS et al.
Increased frequency of micronucleated exfoliated cells among humans exposed in vivo to mobile telephone radiations
Baohong W et al.
Evaluating the combinative effects on human lymphocyte DNA damage induced by ultraviolet ray C plus 1.8 GHz microwaves using comet assay in vitro
Speit G et al.
Genotoxic effects of exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) in cultured mammalian cells are not independently reproducible
Ferreira AR et al.
Ultra high frequency-electromagnetic field irradiation during pregnancy leads to an increase in erythrocytes micronuclei incidence in rat offspring
Lantow M et al.
Comparative study of cell cycle kinetics and induction of apoptosis or necrosis after exposure of human mono mac 6 cells to radiofrequency radiation
Gurisik E et al.
An in vitro study of the effects of exposure to a GSM signal in two human cell lines: monocytic U937 and neuroblastoma SK-N-SH
Scarfi MR et al.
Exposure to radiofrequency radiation (900 MHz, GSM signal) does not affect micronucleus frequency and cell proliferation in human peripheral blood lymphocytes: an interlaboratory study
Micronucleus assay and lymphocyte mitotic activity in risk assessment of occupational exposure to microwave radiation
Vijayalaxmi et al.
Correction of an error in calculation in the article "Frequency of micronuclei in the peripheral blood and bone marrow of cancer-prone mice chronically exposed to 2450 MHz radiofrequency radiation" (Radiat. Res. 147, 495-500, 1997)