The mice were kept in small cylindrical acrylic restrainers (inner diameter 32 mm, length adjustable) placed on a Styrofoam holder in the center of the cross section of the waveguide with their longitudinal axes perpendicular to the EF and to the direction of propagation.
In study 1, all animals, except the cage-controls, were exposed to 4 Gy of X-rays in three equal fractions of 1.33 Gy at 1-week intervals during the first three weeks of the experiment [Heikkinen et al., 2001]. The background 50 Hz MFs were below 0.09 µT. The geomagnetic flux density measured with a fluxgate magnetometer varied between 41 and 54 µT (inclination 80-90°) in study 1.
Measurement and calculation details
The input, reflected and output powers were measured using RFpower meters at the input and output of both exposure chambers. The SAR was controlled daily by adjusting the input power. The calculated maximum local SAR values inside the mice were 4-8 times higher than the whole-body average value and decreased with increasing animal size.
In study 2, all animals, except the cage-controls, were exposed to UVradiation three times/week [Heikkinen et al., 2003] at 1.2 human MED (minimum erythema dose), i.e., a dose of 240 J/m², calculated according to the CIE (Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage) wavelength weighing function [McKinlay and Diffey, 1987]. The background 50 Hz MFs were below 0.09 µT. The geomagnetic flux density measured with a fluxgate magnetometer varied between 50 and 55 µT (inclination 60-80°) in study 2. The animals in study 2 were exposed to average ELF MFs (measured with a small calibrated coil) of 5 µT during shaving with an electric clipper and of 0.6-1.4 µT during the UV-exposure.
Maes A et al.
Cytogenetic investigation of subjects professionally exposed to radiofrequency radiation.
Scarfi MR et al.
Exposure to radiofrequency radiation (900 MHz, GSM signal) does not affect micronucleus frequency and cell proliferation in human peripheral blood lymphocytes: an interlaboratory study.
Lantow M et al.
Comparative study of cell cycle kinetics and induction of apoptosis or necrosis after exposure of human mono mac 6 cells to radiofrequency radiation.
Gurisik E et al.
An in vitro study of the effects of exposure to a GSM signal in two human cell lines: monocytic U937 and neuroblastoma SK-N-SH.
Ferreira AR et al.
Ultra high frequency-electromagnetic field irradiation during pregnancy leads to an increase in erythrocytes micronuclei incidence in rat offspring.
Diem E et al.
Non-thermal DNA breakage by mobile-phone radiation (1800 MHz) in human fibroblasts and in transformed GFSH-R17 rat granulosa cells in vitro.
Zotti-Martelli L et al.
Individual responsiveness to induction of micronuclei in human lymphocytes after exposure in vitro to 1800 MHz microwave radiation.
Vijayalaxmi et al.
Correction of an error in calculation in the article "Frequency of micronuclei in the peripheral blood and bone marrow of cancer-prone mice chronically exposed to 2450 MHz radiofrequency radiation" (Radiat. Res. 147, 495-500, 1997).