研究のタイプ: 医学/生物学の研究 (experimental study)

[妊娠時に無線周波数電磁界へばく露したラット新生児の腎臓における骨形成タンパク発現] med./bio.

Bone morphogenetic protein expression in newborn rat kidneys after prenatal exposure to radiofrequency radiation.

掲載誌: Bioelectromagnetics 2004; 25 (3): 216-227

この研究は、妊娠中のラットパルス化GSM様の電磁放射(RFR:9.4 GHz)ばく露を与え、新生仔の腎臓に現れる影響を探索した。妊娠ラットばく露する準備として、ヒトとラットの異なる共振周波数に基づくシミュレーションモデルを設計した。電磁界の熱的影響を可能な限り回避するため、適用する電力密度は5 μW/ cm2に決定した。妊娠ラットは、交尾後1〜3日目(胚形成、着床前)および同4〜7日目(初期器官形成、着床前後)の2つの期間のいずれかにRFRばく露を受けた。ばく露群および擬似ばく露群の新生仔の腎臓における骨形成タンパク質(BMP)とその受容体(BMPR)の相対的な発現と局在を測定した。BMP-4、-7、BMPR-IA、-IB、-IIは半定量的二重RT-PCRで測定した。その結果、ばく露を受けた新生仔の腎臓でBMP-4およびBMPR-IAの相対的発現の増加、およびBMPR-IIの相対的発現の減少が見られた;交尾後1〜3日目のばく露群では、BMP-4、BMPR-IA、-IIの変化が有意であった(それぞれP <.001);交尾後4〜7日目のばく露群では、BMP-4およびBMPR-IAの変化が有意であった(それぞれP <.001およびP = .005);免疫組織化学およびin situハイブリダイゼーション(ISH)により、組織学的レベルでのこれらの分子異常発現および局在化が示された、と報告している。

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研究目的(著者による)

A simulation model was designed for the athermal exposure of pregnant rats to pulsed GSM-like radiofrequency radiation (9.4 GHz). Relative expression and localization of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMP) and their receptors (BMPR) were examined in kidneys of rat newborns exposed (sham-exposed) during prenatal development.

詳細情報

BMP and BMPR are members of a molecular family currently considered as major endocrine and autocrine morphogenes and known to be involved in renal development.

影響評価項目

ばく露

ばく露 パラメータ
ばく露1: 9.4 GHz
Modulation type: pulsed
ばく露時間: continuous during days 1-3 postcoitum
  • 電力密度: 5 µW/cm² unspecified
  • SAR: 500 nW/g maximum (cf. remarks) (calulated by means of numerical method using Finite Elements.)
ばく露2: 9.4 GHz
Modulation type: pulsed
ばく露時間: continuous during days 4-7 postcoitum
  • SAR: 500 nW/g maximum (cf. remarks) (calculated by means of numerical method using Finite Elements)
  • 電力密度: 5 µW/cm² unspecified

ばく露1

主たる特性
周波数 9.4 GHz
ばく露時間 continuous during days 1-3 postcoitum
Modulation
Modulation type pulsed
Pulse width 20 µs
Repetition frequency 50 Hz
ばく露装置
ばく露の発生源/構造
  • 27 cm horn-fed parabolic antennas placed 10 m apart, facing each other.
Distance between exposed object and exposure source 5 m
チャンバの詳細 Plastic cages /50 cm x 40 cm x 25 cm
ばく露装置の詳細 6 cages with four free moving rats per cage were positioned in two horizontal rows by three vertical columns in the middle of the two antennas.
パラメータ
測定量 種別 Method Mass 備考
電力密度 5 µW/cm² unspecified 測定値 - -
SAR 500 nW/g maximum 計算値 cf. remarks calulated by means of numerical method using Finite Elements.

ばく露2

主たる特性
周波数 9.4 GHz
ばく露時間 continuous during days 4-7 postcoitum
Modulation
Modulation type pulsed
Pulse width 20 µs
Repetition frequency 50 Hz
ばく露装置
ばく露の発生源/構造
  • E1と同じ装置
Distance between exposed object and exposure source 5 m
パラメータ
測定量 種別 Method Mass 備考
SAR 500 nW/g maximum 計算値 cf. remarks calculated by means of numerical method using Finite Elements
電力密度 5 µW/cm² unspecified 測定値 - -

ばく露を受けた生物:

方法 影響評価項目/測定パラメータ/方法

研究対象とした生物試料:
研究対象とした臓器系:
  • kidney
調査の時期:
  • ばく露後

研究の主なアウトカム(著者による)

No malformations were found in the newborns which were exposed to radiofrequency irradiation. At the histological level, kidney sections of irradiated newborn rats occasionally exhibited slight swelling in the tubular cells when compared to corresponding material from sham-exposed rats. Semiquantitative duplex RT-PCR for BMP-4, -7, BMPR-IA, -IB, and -II showed increased BMP-4 and BMPR-IA, and decreased BMPR-II relative expression in kidneys of rat newborns. These changes were statistically significant for BMP-4, BMPR-IA, and -II after irradiation on days 1-3 postcoitum, and for BMP-4 and BMPR-IA after exposure on days 4-7 postcoitum. Immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization showed aberrant expression and localization of these molecules at the histological level.
The data suggest that GSM-like radiofrequency radiation interferes with gene expression during early gestation and results in aberrations of BMP expression in the newborn animal. These molecular alterations do not appear to affect renal organogenesis and may reflect a delay in the development of this organ. The differences of relative BMP expression after different exposure times indicate the importance of timing for GSM-like radiofrequency radiation effects on embryonic development.

研究の種別:

研究助成

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