この研究は、18人の患者（男性10人、女性8人）から得たヒト鼻粘膜（粘膜+細胞）試料を用いた実験を行い、1.8 GHzの連続波電磁界（EMF）のばく露が、鼻粘膜の繊毛輸送に与える影響、さらに、繊毛運動周波数（CBF）の変化を病態生理学的に評価した。1.8 GHz EMFばく露は、SAR = 1.0 W / kgで、連続して3日間与えた。CBFは、ピーク検出法を用いたオプティカルフロー法で分析した。その結果、EMFばく露群では、対照群に比べ、CBFの低下が見られた；細胞毒性アッセイでは、2群間に生存率の違いはなかった；プロテインキナーゼC（PKC）活性アッセイでは、EMFばく露群でのPKC活性上昇が示された；広範なPKC阻害剤であるカルホスチンC添加により、EMFばく露群で見られたCBF低下は見られなくなった； EMFによるCBF低下は、GF 109203X（新規のPKC（nPKC）アイソフォーム阻害剤）で消失し、Go-6976（従来のPKC（cPKC）アイソフォーム特異的阻害剤）では消失しなかった：総括すると、EMFはnPKC依存メカニズムを介してCBFを抑制する可能性が示された、と報告している。
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To investigate the effects of a 1.8 GHz electromagnetic field (CW) on the human nasal muco-ciliary transport and to determine the pathophysiology of ciliary beat frequency.
Muco-ciliary transport is a major respiratory tract host defense mechanism that works against inhaled microbes and noxious materials. Cilia movement is an essential point for this fundamental defense mechanism. The ciliary beat frequency is a quantitative measurement of ciliary beats and the most important factor responsible for regulating muco-ciliary transport.
Nasal mucosa (mucosa + cells) was obtained from 18 patients (10 males, 8 females). One sample was obtained from each of three patients and each measurement was performed three times. The cultured nasal mucosa was used for measurement of the ciliary beat frequency with and without protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor (agents that activate PKC have been associated with decreasing ciliary beat frequency). Normal nasal epithelial cells were used to examine the cytotoxicity of exposure to an 1.8 GHz electromagnetic field.
|ばく露時間||continuous for 3 days|
|ばく露装置の詳細||sample plates placed inside an incubator directly above the dipole antenna in the H-field maxima|
|Sham exposure||A sham exposure was conducted.|
In nasal mucosa cells of the exposed group, the ciliary beat frequency began to decrease compared to the control samples from the beginning of the exposure with a maximum difference after three days. A significant increase in the enzyme activity of protein kinase C was observed in exposed samples in comparison to control samples. An incubation of the exposed sample with the protein kinase C inhibitor Calphostin C abolished the exposure induced decrease of the ciliary beat frequency. The addition of the protein kinase C inhibitor Gö-6976 did not affect the ciliary beat frequency neither in the exposed nor in the control group. However, the addition of the protein kinase C inhibitor GF 109203X prevented any exposure induced decrease of the ciliary beat frequency.
In nasal epithelial cells, no significant difference was observed in the cell viability between the exposed samples and the control samples.
The authors summarize that exposure to a 1.8 GHz electromagnetic field may inhibit the ciliary beat frequency via an "novel protein kinase C" dependent mechanism, but seems not to be cytotoxic in nasal epithelial cells.