研究のタイプ: 医学/生物学の研究 (experimental study)

[無線機器からの電磁波の生物学的影響を明らかにするための生物指標にアリが利用できる] med./bio.

Ants can be used as bio-indicators to reveal biological effects of electromagnetic waves from some wireless apparatus.

掲載誌: Electromagn Biol Med 2014; 33 (4): 282-288

この研究は、実験用トレイで飼育中のアリの行動に対する無線機器の影響を実験的に観察した。調査した機器は、携帯電話、スマートホン、コードレス電話(DECT)、WiFiルータである。通常動作中のそれらの機器の近くにアリの飼育トレイをおいて、行動軌線を記録したほか、行動を観察した。その結果、行動軌線の数量的変化、特異な行動などが観察された、と報告している。

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研究目的(著者による)

In view of the development of a novel test system, the effects of exposure of ants to different radiofrequency electromagnetic fields on the motor activity as a potential indicator for adverse effects of electromagnetic fields should be investigated.

詳細情報

Ants of the species Myrmica sabuleti and Myrmica ruginodis were exposed to different exposure and control conditions (without any wireless equipment nearby).
Ants were divided into the following groups (each with n=20-40 ants from 1-2 colonies): M. sabuleti was 1) exposed to a mobile phone battery, 2) to a mobile phone without battery, or to a complete phone in 3) off mode, 4) in standby mode and 5) in on mode. The tests with groups 2-5 were repeated under blind conditions afterwards. M. sabuleti ants were further exposed to an active 6) DECT phone or 7) smartphone or to a WLAN router for 8) 5 or 9) 30 minutes.
M. ruginodis was exposed to 10) a notebook in off-mode, 11) an active notebook with deactivated WLAN function and 12) an active notebook with activated WLAN function.
For both species, several control groups were conducted.

影響評価項目

ばく露

ばく露 パラメータ
ばく露1:
  • DC/static
ばく露時間: not given
mobile phone battery
-
ばく露2:
  • unspecified
ばく露時間: not given
mobile phone without battery
-
ばく露3:
  • DC/static
ばく露時間: not given
mobile phone off
-
ばく露4: 900 MHz
ばく露時間: not given
mobile phone standby
-
ばく露5: 900 MHz
ばく露時間: not given
mobile phone on
ばく露6:
  • unspecified
ばく露時間: continuous for 3 minutes
DECT phone
  • 電力密度: 800 µW/m² minimum (800, 1000 or more than 2000 µW/m2 at a distance of 10-20 cm)
ばく露7:
  • unspecified
ばく露時間: continuous for 3 minutes
smartphone
  • 電力密度: 800 µW/m² minimum (800, 1000 or more than 2000 µW/m2 at a distance of 10-20 cm)
ばく露8: 2.4 GHz
ばく露時間: continuous for 5 minutes
WLAN router
ばく露9: 2.4 GHz
ばく露時間: continuous for 30 minutes
WLAN router
ばく露10:
  • unspecified
ばく露時間: continuous for 5 minutes
notebook off
-
ばく露11:
  • unspecified
ばく露時間: continuous for 5 minutes
notebook with deactivated WLAN
ばく露12:
  • unspecified
ばく露時間: continuous for 5 minutes
notebook with active WLAN

ばく露1

主たる特性
周波数
  • DC/static
ばく露時間 not given
Additional information mobile phone battery
ばく露装置
ばく露の発生源/構造
  • Nokia 3120 battery
チャンバの詳細 artificial nests made of one to three glass tubes, half-filled with water and a cotton-plug separating the ants from the water; the glass tubes were deposited in trays (33 x 22 x 2.5 cm or 43 x 28 x 7 cm)
ばく露装置の詳細 exposure source was placed below nest trays; room temperature was maintained at 20°C ± 2°C and humidity was about 80%
パラメータ

No parameters are specified for this exposure.

ばく露2

主たる特性
周波数
  • unspecified
ばく露時間 not given
Additional information mobile phone without battery
ばく露装置
ばく露の発生源/構造
  • E1と同じ装置
  • セルラ-電話
  • Nokia 3120
パラメータ

No parameters are specified for this exposure.

ばく露3

主たる特性
周波数
  • DC/static
タイプ
  • electromagnetic field
ばく露時間 not given
Additional information mobile phone off
ばく露装置
ばく露の発生源/構造
  • E1と同じ装置
  • セルラ-電話
  • Nokia 3120
パラメータ

No parameters are specified for this exposure.

ばく露4

主たる特性
周波数 900 MHz
タイプ
  • electromagnetic field
ばく露時間 not given
Additional information mobile phone standby
Additional information GSM
ばく露装置
ばく露の発生源/構造
  • E1と同じ装置
  • セルラ-電話
  • Nokia 3120
パラメータ

No parameters are specified for this exposure.

ばく露5

主たる特性
周波数 900 MHz
タイプ
  • electromagnetic field
ばく露時間 not given
Additional information mobile phone on
Additional information GSM
ばく露装置
ばく露の発生源/構造
  • E1と同じ装置
  • セルラ-電話
  • Nokia 3120
Sham exposure A sham exposure was conducted.
パラメータ
測定量 種別 Method Mass 備考
電力 2 W - 推定値 - -
電力密度 5 µW/m² - 測定値 - measured near active phone

ばく露6

主たる特性
周波数
  • unspecified
タイプ
  • electromagnetic field
ばく露時間 continuous for 3 minutes
Additional information DECT phone
ばく露装置
ばく露の発生源/構造
  • E1と同じ装置
  • DECT phone
パラメータ
測定量 種別 Method Mass 備考
電力密度 800 µW/m² minimum 測定値 - 800, 1000 or more than 2000 µW/m2 at a distance of 10-20 cm

ばく露7

主たる特性
周波数
  • unspecified
タイプ
  • electromagnetic field
ばく露時間 continuous for 3 minutes
Additional information smartphone
ばく露装置
ばく露の発生源/構造
  • E1と同じ装置
  • smartphone
パラメータ
測定量 種別 Method Mass 備考
電力密度 800 µW/m² minimum 測定値 - 800, 1000 or more than 2000 µW/m2 at a distance of 10-20 cm

ばく露8

主たる特性
周波数 2.4 GHz
タイプ
  • electromagnetic field
ばく露時間 continuous for 5 minutes
Additional information WLAN router
ばく露装置
ばく露の発生源/構造
Distance between exposed object and exposure source 30 cm
チャンバの詳細 see E1
ばく露装置の詳細 router was placed between the two colonies; room temperature was maintained at 20°C ± 2°C and humidity was about 80%
Sham exposure A sham exposure was conducted.
パラメータ
測定量 種別 Method Mass 備考
電力密度 600 µW/m² mean 測定値 - -
電力密度 800 µW/m² mean 測定値 - -

ばく露9

主たる特性
周波数 2.4 GHz
タイプ
  • electromagnetic field
ばく露時間 continuous for 30 minutes
Additional information WLAN router
ばく露装置
ばく露の発生源/構造
Distance between exposed object and exposure source 30 cm
チャンバの詳細 see E1
ばく露装置の詳細 see E8
Sham exposure A sham exposure was conducted.
パラメータ
測定量 種別 Method Mass 備考
電力密度 600 µW/m² mean 測定値 - -
電力密度 800 µW/m² mean 測定値 - -

ばく露10

主たる特性
周波数
  • unspecified
タイプ
  • electromagnetic field
ばく露時間 continuous for 5 minutes
Additional information notebook off
ばく露装置
ばく露の発生源/構造
  • notebook (ACER Aspire 2920)
チャンバの詳細 see E1
ばく露装置の詳細 ants were located in front of the computer, at a distance of 20 cm and 5 cm beneath, i.e. where a user's body is usually located; room temperature was maintained at 20°C ± 2°C and humidity was about 80%
Sham exposure A sham exposure was conducted.
パラメータ

No parameters are specified for this exposure.

ばく露11

主たる特性
周波数
  • unspecified
タイプ
  • electromagnetic field
ばく露時間 continuous for 5 minutes
Additional information notebook with deactivated WLAN
ばく露装置
ばく露の発生源/構造
  • notebook
チャンバの詳細 see E1
ばく露装置の詳細 see E10
Sham exposure A sham exposure was conducted.
パラメータ
測定量 種別 Method Mass 備考
電力密度 5 µW/m² minimum 測定値 - when WLAN was deactived
電力密度 8 µW/m² maximum 測定値 - when WLAN was deactived

ばく露12

主たる特性
周波数
  • unspecified
タイプ
  • electromagnetic field
ばく露時間 continuous for 5 minutes
Additional information notebook with active WLAN
ばく露装置
ばく露の発生源/構造
  • notebook (ACER Aspire 2920)
チャンバの詳細 see E1
ばく露装置の詳細 see E10
Sham exposure A sham exposure was conducted.
パラメータ
測定量 種別 Method Mass 備考
電力密度 600 µW/m² peak 測定値 - -
電力密度 800 µW/m² peak 測定値 - -
電力密度 300 µW/m² - 測定値 - during exposure
電力密度 500 µW/m² - 測定値 - during exposure

ばく露を受けた生物:

方法 影響評価項目/測定パラメータ/方法

研究対象とした生物試料:
調査の時期:
  • ばく露中
  • ばく露後

研究の主なアウトカム(著者による)

Exposure to a complete mobile phone in off, standby or on mode (groups 3-5) resulted in a significantly increased angular speed but only exposure to a complete mobile phone in on mode resulted in an additional significant decrease of the linear speed compared to the control group. These results were confirmed by the blind tests. Moreover, it was observed that ants left their nest and took their brood with them immediatelly when a mobile phone in standby mode was placed directly under the nest.
Exposure to a DECT phone or smartphone or to a WLAN router led to a significantly increased angular speed and a significantly decreased linear speed compared to the control group.
Exposure to an active notebook with activated WLAN function induced a significantly increased angular speed compared to the control group.
The authors conclude that exposure of ants to different radiofrequency electromagnetic fields could have effects on the motor activity and might be of use in a test as an indicator for adverse effects of electromagnetic fields.

研究の種別:

研究助成

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