Study type: Medical/biological study (experimental study)

The effects of simultaneous combined exposure to CDMA and WCDMA electromagnetic fields on rat testicular function. med./bio.

Published in: Bioelectromagnetics 2012; 33 (4): 356-364

Aim of study (acc. to author)

To study the effects of combined exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (WCDMA and CDMA) on rat testicular function (specifically with respect to spermatogenesis).

Background/further details

50 male rats were used, randomly assigned to four groups: a cage control (n=5), a sham exposed control (n=20), a combined radiofrequency-exposed (n=20) or a gamma ray-exposed group (as positive control, 5 Gy, n= 5).



Exposure Parameters
Exposure 1: 848.5–1,950 MHz
Exposure duration: continuous 45 min/day, 5 days/week for 12 weeks

General information

rats were treated in four groups: i) cage control ii) sham exposure iii) RF exposure iv) exposure to gamma rays

Exposure 1

Main characteristics
Frequency 848.5–1,950 MHz
Exposure duration continuous 45 min/day, 5 days/week for 12 weeks
Additional info 848.5 MHZ = CDMA 1950 MHz = WCDMA
Exposure setup
Exposure source
Chamber 2295 mm x 2293 mm x 1470 mm reverberation chamber with 2.3 mm thick stainless steel walls as exposure chamber
Setup five 420 mm x 260 mm x 180 mm polycarbonate cages with two rats each placed inside the reverberation chamber; rats exposed simultaneously to WCDMA and CDMA
Sham exposure A sham exposure was conducted.
Measurand Value Type Method Mass Remarks
power 30 W - - - CDMA
power 18 W - - - WCDMA
SAR 2 W/kg average over mass calculated whole body WCDMA
SAR 2 W/kg average over mass calculated whole body CDMA
SAR 4 W/kg average over mass calculated whole body total for the combined exposure to CDMA and WCDMA

Exposed system:

Methods Endpoint/measurement parameters/methodology

Investigated system:
Investigated organ system:
Time of investigation:
  • after exposure

Main outcome of study (acc. to author)

No significant differences in testicular function, including sperm counts in the cauda epididymis, MDA concentration in testes and epididymis, frequency of spermatogenesis stages, or number of apoptotic cells in each testis, were found during spermatogenesis in rats simultaneously exposed to CDMA and WCDMA radiofrequency electromagnetic fields at a SAR of 2 W/kg each (4 W/kg total) for 12 weeks.
The authors conclude, that the findings suggest that simultaneous exposure to 848.5 MHz and 1950 MHz radiofrequency electromagnetic fields had no adverse effects on the male reproductive system, as seen in this rat spermatogenesis model.

Study character:

Study funded by

Related articles