Medical/biological study (experimental study)

Effects on rat testis of 1.95-GHz W-CDMA for IMT-2000 cellular phones.

Published in: Syst Biol Reprod Med 2011; 57 (4): 204-209

Aim of study (acc. to author)

To study the effects of whole body exposure to 1.95 GHz on rat testes.
Background/further details: Five week old animals were divided into three groups of 24 each and exposed for five weeks (from the age of 5 to 10 weeks, corresponding to reproductive maturation in the rat).



Exposure Parameters
Exposure 1: 1.95 GHz
Modulation type: CW
Exposure duration: continuous for 5 h/day, 7 days/week during 5 weeks
  • SAR: 0.08 W/kg (group ii)
  • SAR: 0.4 W/kg (group iii)
General information
rats were treated in three groups: i) sham exposure ii) low level EMF exposure iii) high level EMF exposure
Exposure 1
Main characteristics
Frequency 1.95 GHz
  • circular
Exposure duration continuous for 5 h/day, 7 days/week during 5 weeks
Modulation type CW
Exposure setup
Exposure source
Setup 90 cm x 90 cm x 40 cm exposure boxes with inside dimensions of 70 cm x 70 cm x 34 cm covered on the inside with 6 cm thick planar RF absorbers, except for the ceiling, which was made of metal mesh and covered with a 4.2 mm thick translucent acrylic plate; a turntable covered with a 2 mm thick reflector plate was placed inside the box, with which the EMF exposure to the front side including the testis was increased; four 200 mm x 190 mm acrylic cages, housing 1 rat each, cylindrically arranged in the exposure chamber; two antennas covered with a ABS resin cap, crossing at a right angle and with a spacing of 40 mm hanging from the ceiling in the center of the exposure box
Sham exposure A sham exposure was conducted.
Measurand Value Type Method Mass Remarks
SAR 0.08 W/kg - calculated whole body group ii
SAR 0.4 W/kg - calculated whole body group iii
Reference articles
  • Takahashi S et al. (2010): Lack of adverse effects of whole-body exposure to a mobile telecommunication electromagnetic field on the rat fetus.
  • Ogawa K et al. (2009): Effects of gestational exposure to 1.95-GHz W-CDMA signals for IMT-2000 cellular phones: Lack of embryotoxicity and teratogenicity in rats.
  • Wang J et al. (2008): Development and Dosimetry Analysis of a 2-GHz Whole-Body Exposure Setup for Unrestrained Pregnant and Newborn Rats.
  • Wake K et al. (2007): An Exposure System for Long-Term and Large-Scale Animal Bioassay of 1.5-GHz Digital Cellular Phones.
  • Shirai T et al. (2007): Lack of promoting effects of chronic exposure to 1.95-GHz W-CDMA signals for IMT-2000 cellular system on development of N-ethylnitrosourea-induced central nervous system tumors in F344 rats.
Exposed system:

Methods Endpoint/measurement parameters/methodology

Investigated material:
Investigated organ system:
Time of investigation:
  • during exposure
  • after exposure

Main outcome of study (acc. to author)

There were no differences in body weight gain or weights of the testis, epididymis, seminal vesicles, and prostate among the groups. The number of sperms in the testis and epididymis were not decreased in the electromagnetic field exposed groups. The testicular sperm count was even significantly increased with the 0.4 W/kg SAR. Abnormalities of sperm motility or morphology and the histological appearance of seminiferous tubules, including the stage of the spermatogenic cycle, were not found.
In conclusion, under the present exposure conditions no testicular toxicity was evident.
Study character:

Study funded by

  • Association of Radio Industries and Businesses (ARIB), Japan

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