Medical/biological study (experimental study)

Impact of microwave at X-band in the aetiology of male infertility.

Published in: Electromagn Biol Med 2012; 31 (3): 223-232

Aim of study (acc. to author)

To investigate the effects of a 10 GHz electromagnetic field on male rat's reproductive system.
Background/further details: 70 days old male rats were sham exposed (n=6) or exposed (n=6) to an electromagnetic field. Immediately after the experiment, blood samples and sperms were collected.



Exposure Parameters
Exposure 1: 10 GHz
Exposure duration: continuous for 2 h/day on 45 days
Exposure 1
Main characteristics
Frequency 10 GHz
Exposure duration continuous for 2 h/day on 45 days
Exposure setup
Exposure source
Setup six rats placed in a 22 cm x 7 cm x 7.5 cm cage, lined from the outside with anechoic material except for the top, ventilated by 1 cm diameter holes and located under the horn antenna
Sham exposure A sham exposure was conducted.
Measurand Value Type Method Mass Remarks
power density 0.21 mW/cm² - measured - -
SAR 0.014 W/kg - calculated whole body -
Measurement and calculation details
SAR was calculated for an average size of small animals following the work of Durney et al. (Durney, C. H., Iskander, M. F., Massoudi, H., Johnson, C. C. (1984). An empirical formula for broad band SAR calculations of prolate spheroidal models of humans and animal. In: Osepchuk, J. M. Biological Effects of Electromagnetic Radiation (pp. 85-90) New York: IEEE Press).
Exposed system:

Methods Endpoint/measurement parameters/methodology

Investigated material:
Time of investigation:
  • after exposure

Main outcome of study (acc. to author)

The level of malondialdehyde and the activity of creatine kinase were significantly increased, while the level of melatonin was significantly decreased in the exposed group as compared to the sham exposed group. Additionally, the content of hemoglobin, as well as the numbers of total leukocytes, neutrophils, lymphocytes, thrombocytes and red blood cells were significantly decreased in the exposed animals in comparison to the sham exposed animals.
The authors conclude that these results are indications of deleterious effects of 10 GHz electromagnetic fields on the reproductive pattern of male rats.
Study character:

Study funded by

  • not stated/no funding

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