Study type: Medical/biological study (experimental study)

Protective effects of beta-glucan against oxidative injury induced by 2.45-GHz electromagnetic radiation in the skin tissue of rats med./bio.

Published in: Arch Dermatol Res 2012; 304 (7): 521-527

Aim of study (acc. to author)

To study the effect of 2.45 GHz electromagnetic irradiation on the oxidant and antioxidant status in the skin of rats and to examine the possible protective effects of beta-glucan against the oxidative damage.

Background/further details

32 male rats were randomly divided into four equal groups: 1) cage control, 2) sham exposed group, 3) exposure group and 4) exposure + beta-glucan treatment (50 mg/kg/day before each exposure).



Exposure Parameters
Exposure 1: 2.45 GHz
Modulation type: pulsed
Exposure duration: continuous for 60 min/day during 4 weeks

General information

Rats were treated in the following four groups: i) cage control ii) sham exposure iii) EMF exposure iv) EMF exposure + treatment with β-glucan

Exposure 1

Main characteristics
Frequency 2.45 GHz
Exposure duration continuous for 60 min/day during 4 weeks
Modulation type pulsed
Repetition frequency 217 Hz
Exposure setup
Exposure source
Setup rat placed in a 15 cm long PVC-cylinder with a diameter of 5 cm; 6 cylinders positioned radially on a round Plexiglas base plate so that the rats' noses were in close contact to the antenna which was placed in the center of the plate; cylinders ventilated; exposure system kept in a Faraday cage with a shielding effectiveness of 80 dB
Sham exposure A sham exposure was conducted.
Measurand Value Type Method Mass Remarks
power 2 W maximum - - -
electric field strength 25 V/m average over mass measured - -
electric field strength 70 V/m maximum measured - at the animal's nose
SAR 64 mW/kg average over mass calculated - -
SAR 1 W/kg maximum calculated partial body -

Reference articles

  • Naziroglu M et al. (2009): Modulator effects of L-carnitine and selenium on wireless devices (2.45 GHz)-induced oxidative stress and electroencephalography records in brain of rat

Exposed system:

Methods Endpoint/measurement parameters/methodology

Investigated system:
Investigated organ system:
Time of investigation:
  • after exposure

Main outcome of study (acc. to author)

Exposure to 2.45 GHz irradiation caused a significant increase in malondialdehyde levels and catalase enzyme activity, while the enzyme activities of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase decreased, compared with the cage control or sham exposed group.
Beta-glucan administration significantly reversed the elevation of malondialdehyde levels and the reduction of superoxide dismutase enzyme activity. Beta-glucan treatment also slightly, but not statistically significantly enhanced the activity of catalase and prevented the decrease of glutathione peroxidase enzyme activity caused by electromagnetic field exposure.
The data demonstrated the role of oxidative mechanisms in electromagnetic field-induced skin tissue damages and that beta-glucan could ameliorate oxidative skin injury via its antioxidant properties.

Study character:

Study funded by

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