Rats were divided into the following groups (n=21 each): 1) GSM exposure, 2) melatonin group (intraperitoneal injection of 2 mg/kg melatonin), 3) co-exposure (melatonin injection and GSM exposure), 4) control group (injection with saline).
After 20, 40 and 60 days, 7 rats from each group were sacrificed and analyzed, respectively.
Modulation type: CW
Exposure duration: continuous for 4 hours/day for 20, 40 or 60 days
|Chamber||plastic cage without any metallic fittings|
|Setup||8 rats per cage (remark EMF-Portal: but 7 rats per cage were housed and sacrificed) were able to move freely; test phone was connected to a computer with an appropriate software module by a communication test set PC development kit|
|electric field strength||9.88 V/m||minimum||measured||-||-|
|electric field strength||18.36 V/m||maximum||measured||-||-|
|magnetic flux density||4.68 µT||minimum||measured||-||-|
|magnetic flux density||8.69 µT||maximum||measured||-||-|
|SAR||0.043 W/kg||minimum||estimated||whole body||-|
|SAR||0.135 W/kg||maximum||estimated||whole body||-|
After 20 days, only the lipid peroxidation and the enzyme activity of the alkaline DNase were significantly increased and the enzyme activity of the catalase was significantly reduced in the testes of GSM exposed mice (group 1) compared to the control group (group 4). After 40 and 60 days, the lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation and enzyme activities of xanthine oxidase, alkaline and acid DNase were significantly increased and the enzyme activity of the catalase was significantly reduced in GSM exposed mice compared to the control group.
Co-exposure to the GSM field and melatonin (group 3) significantly reduced lipid peroxidation, xanthine oxidase and acid DNAse enzyme activities compared to the GSM exposure group.
Mice injected with melatonin only (group 2) showed a significantly reduced acid DNAse enzyme activity after 20-60 days compared to the control group.
The authors conclude that exposure of rats to a 900 MHz electromagnetic field (GSM) could induce oxidative stress in the testes and that melatonin might attenuate the effect.