Study type: Medical/biological study (experimental study)

Protective effects of melatonin against oxidative injury in rat testis induced by wireless (2.45 GHz) devices med./bio.

Published in: Andrologia 2014; 46 (1): 65-72

Aim of study (acc. to author)

To investigate the effects of exposure to a 2.45 GHz electromagnetic field on oxidative stress in rat testis, as well as the possible protective effects of melatonin.

Background/further details

Rats were divided into four groups (n=8 per group): 1.) cage control, 2.) sham exposure + saline, 3.) exposure and 4.) exposure + melatonin (10 mg/kg per day). After 30 days of exposure, rats were sacrificed and testis were taken.



Exposure Parameters
Exposure 1: 2.45 GHz
Modulation type: pulsed
Exposure duration: continuous for 1 h/day on 30 days

General information

Rats were treated in the following four groups: i) cage control ii) sham exposure iii) EMF exposure iv) EMF exposure + 10 mg/kg per day melatonin administration

Exposure 1

Main characteristics
Frequency 2.45 GHz
Exposure duration continuous for 1 h/day on 30 days
Modulation type pulsed
Repetition frequency 217 Hz
Exposure setup
Exposure source
  • half-wave dipole or monopole (varying indications within the text; remark EMF-Portal)
Distance between exposed object and exposure source 1 m
Setup 15 cm long cylindrical constrainers with a diameter of 5 cm, holding one rat each, positioned radially on a plexiglass ground plate with the antenna in the center; 8 rats (Figure shows 6 rats (?)) placed with their noses near the antenna (distance between testis of the rat and antenna nearly 1 m (?!); exposure system kept in a Faraday cage
Sham exposure A sham exposure was conducted.
Measurand Value Type Method Mass Remarks
electric field strength 11 V/m - measured - -
power density 1 mW/m² - - - -
SAR 0.1 W/kg - calculated whole body -

Reference articles

  • Naziroglu M et al. (2009): Modulator effects of L-carnitine and selenium on wireless devices (2.45 GHz)-induced oxidative stress and electroencephalography records in brain of rat
  • Gumral N et al. (2009): Effects of Selenium and L-Carnitine on Oxidative Stress in Blood of Rat Induced by 2.45-GHz Radiation from Wireless Devices

Exposed system:

Methods Endpoint/measurement parameters/methodology

Investigated system:
Investigated organ system:
Time of investigation:
  • after exposure

Main outcome of study (acc. to author)

No significant difference in the weight of the testis was found among the groups.
The values for lipid peroxidation in the exposed group were significantly higher than in the cage control and the sham exposure group. However, exposed rats treated with melatonin had significant lower values for lipid peroxidation when compared to the exposed group without melatonin treatment.
The level of glutathione was significantly decreased in the exposed group with melatonin compared to the exposed group without melatonin administration. The enzyme activity of the glutathione peroxidase was significantly increased in the exposed group with melatonin in comparison to the exposed animals without melatonin and the control groups.
A significant decrease in the levels of vitamin A and a significant increase in the vitamin E levels were found in both exposure groups when compared to the control groups. Moreover, the level of vitamin E in the exposure group with melatonin was significantly higher than in the exposure group without melatonin.
Among the groups, no difference in the content of vitamin C and beta-carotene was found.
The authors conclude that exposure to an electromagnetic field could induce oxidative damage in rat testis. A melatonin administration could prevent oxidative damage and support the antioxidant defense system.

Study character:

Study funded by

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