Study type: Medical/biological study (experimental study)

Wi-Fi (2.45 GHz)- and Mobile Phone (900 and 1800 MHz)-Induced Risks on Oxidative Stress and Elements in Kidney and Testis of Rats During Pregnancy and the Development of Offspring. med./bio.

Published in: Biol Trace Elem Res 2013; 156 (1-3): 221-229

Aim of study (acc. to author)

To examine the effects of an exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields on oxidative stress and trace element levels in the kidney and testis of rats.

Background/further details

32 pregnant rats and after delivery 96 male pups (the female pups were excluded from the study) were equally divided into 4 groups: 1.) cage stress (sham exposure and/or cage control, contradictory information), 2.) exposure to 2.45 GHz, 3.) exposure to 900 MHz and 4.) exposure to 1800 MHz. From each group, 8 pups were killed and examined at an age of 4, 5 and 6 weeks. After delivery, the dams were not further exposed and excluded from the study.
The levels of trace elements were measured because they often act as cofactors for antioxidative enzymes and are involved in processes preventing oxidative stress.

Endpoint

Exposure

Exposure Parameters
Exposure 1: 2.45 GHz
Modulation type: pulsed
Exposure duration: 60 min/day (5 days/week) during gestation and up to 6 weeks following delivery
Exposure 2: 900 MHz
Modulation type: pulsed
Exposure duration: 60 min/day (5 days/week) during gestation and up to 6 weeks following delivery
Exposure 3: 1,800 MHz
Modulation type: pulsed
Exposure duration: 60 min/day (5 days/week) during gestation and up to 6 weeks following delivery

Exposure 1

Main characteristics
Frequency 2.45 GHz
Type
Waveform
Exposure duration 60 min/day (5 days/week) during gestation and up to 6 weeks following delivery
Modulation
Modulation type pulsed
Repetition frequency 217 Hz
Exposure setup
Exposure source
Distance between exposed object and exposure source 25 cm
Chamber rats were placed in the cylindrical restrainer (12 rats simultaneously) with the head directed to the antenna
Setup exposure system was kept in a specific room that contained plastic furniture such as tables and chairs for protecting the cells from possible radiation reflection, walls of the room were completely covered by chromium-nickel sheets to prevent possible external telemetric exposure
Sham exposure A sham exposure was conducted.
Parameters
Measurand Value Type Method Mass Remarks
power density 12 µW/cm² - - - input power
electric field strength 10 V/m - measured - at the closest point to the body
SAR 0.18 W/kg mean measured and calculated whole body ± 0.07 W/kg
SAR 1.2 W/kg maximum measured and calculated whole body 0.01-1.2 W/kg

Exposure 2

Main characteristics
Frequency 900 MHz
Type
Waveform
Exposure duration 60 min/day (5 days/week) during gestation and up to 6 weeks following delivery
Modulation
Modulation type pulsed
Repetition frequency 217 Hz
Exposure setup
Exposure source
Distance between exposed object and exposure source 1 cm
Sham exposure A sham exposure was conducted.
Parameters
Measurand Value Type Method Mass Remarks
power density 12 µW/cm² - - - input power
electric field strength 10 V/m - measured - at the closest point to the body
SAR 0.18 W/kg mean measured and calculated whole body ± 0.07 W/kg
SAR 1.2 W/kg maximum measured and calculated whole body 0.01-1.2 W/kg

Exposure 3

Main characteristics
Frequency 1,800 MHz
Type
Waveform
Exposure duration 60 min/day (5 days/week) during gestation and up to 6 weeks following delivery
Modulation
Modulation type pulsed
Repetition frequency 217 Hz
Exposure setup
Exposure source
Distance between exposed object and exposure source 1 cm
Sham exposure A sham exposure was conducted.
Parameters
Measurand Value Type Method Mass Remarks
power density 12 µW/cm² - - - input power
electric field strength 10 V/m - measured - at the closest point to the body
SAR 0.18 W/kg mean measured and calculated whole body ± 0.07 W/kg
SAR 1.2 W/kg maximum measured and calculated whole body 0.01-1.2 W/kg

Reference articles

  • Jin Z et al. (2012): The Effect of Combined Exposure of 900 MHz Radiofrequency Fields and Doxorubicin in HL-60 Cells.
  • Naziroglu M et al. (2012): Melatonin modulates wireless (2.45 GHz)-induced oxidative injury through TRPM2 and voltage gated Ca(2+) channels in brain and dorsal root ganglion in rat.
  • Naziroglu M et al. (2012): 2.45-Gz wireless devices induce oxidative stress and proliferation through cytosolic Ca(2+) influx in human leukemia cancer cells.
  • Ozlem Nisbet H et al. (2012): Effects of exposure to electromagnetic field (1.8/0.9 GHz) on testicular function and structure in growing rats.
  • Peyman A et al. (2001): Changes in the dielectric properties of rat tissue as a function of age at microwave frequencies.

Exposed system:

Methods Endpoint/measurement parameters/methodology

Investigated system:
Time of investigation:
  • after exposure

Main outcome of study (acc. to author)

At the age of 4 weeks, in all exposure groups, the lipid peroxidation in the kidney and in the testis was significantly decreased compared to the control group. The values for copper, zinc, reduced glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, and total antioxidant status were significantly decreased in the kidney while in the testis the levels of iron, vitamin A and vitamin E were significantly increased in the exposed groups in comparison to the control group.
At the age of 5 weeks, the concentrations of iron, vitamin A and beta-carotene were significantly increased in the kidney of exposed rats in comparison to the control group, while the level of reduced glutathione and the total antioxidant status were significantly decreased.
At the age of six weeks, the exposed rats showed a significantly increased concentration of iron in the kidney and lipid peroxidation in the kidney and testis compared to the control rats, however the level of copper and reduced glutathione as well as the total antioxidant status were significantly decreased.
The authors conclude that exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields caused oxidative stress and decreased the level of antioxidants.

Study character:

Study funded by

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