one animal per Plexiglas cage (length: 55 cm, width: 17.5 cm, height: 15 cm), ventilated with holes of 2 mm diameter
a mobile phone was placed on top of each exposure chamber; the phone was kept on "talk mode" at a fixed frequency and was connected to a stepper, which was programmed to keep the phone on an angular movement from 2° to 20° (moving at 2°/min) above the cage during exposure to simulate actual movement of a mobile phone during use
Tas M et al.
Long-term effects of 900 MHz radiofrequency radiation emitted from mobile phone on testicular tissue and epididymal semen quality.
Jelodar G et al.
The prophylactic effect of vitamin C on induced oxidative stress in rat testis following exposure to 900 MHz radio frequency wave generated by a BTS antenna model.
Hanci H et al.
The effect of prenatal exposure to 900-megahertz electromagnetic field on the 21-old-day rat testicle.
Ozorak A et al.
Wi-Fi (2.45 GHz)- and Mobile Phone (900 and 1800 MHz)-Induced Risks on Oxidative Stress and Elements in Kidney and Testis of Rats During Pregnancy and the Development of Offspring.
Trosic I et al.
Histological and cytological examination of rat reproductive tissue after short-time intermittent radiofrequency exposure.
Rat testicular impairment induced by electromagnetic radiation from a conventional cellular telephone and the protective effects of the antioxidants vitamins C and E.
Celik S et al.
An evaluation of the effects of long-term cell phone use on the testes via light and electron microscope analysis.