one animal per Plexiglas cage (length: 55 cm, width: 17.5 cm, height: 15 cm), ventilated with holes of 2 mm diameter
a mobile phone was placed on top of each exposure chamber; the phone was kept on "talk mode" at a fixed frequency and was connected to a stepper, which was programmed to keep the phone on an angular movement from 2° to 20° (moving at 2°/min) above the cage during exposure to simulate actual movement of a mobile phone during use
Tas M et al.
Long-term effects of 900 MHz radiofrequency radiation emitted from mobile phone on testicular tissue and epididymal semen quality.
Jelodar G et al.
The prophylactic effect of vitamin C on induced oxidative stress in rat testis following exposure to 900 MHz radio frequency wave generated by a BTS antenna model.
Ozorak A et al.
Wi-Fi (2.45 GHz)- and Mobile Phone (900 and 1800 MHz)-Induced Risks on Oxidative Stress and Elements in Kidney and Testis of Rats During Pregnancy and the Development of Offspring.
Trosic I et al.
Histological and cytological examination of rat reproductive tissue after short-time intermittent radiofrequency exposure.
Hanci H et al.
The effect of prenatal exposure to 900-megahertz electromagnetic field on the 21-old-day rat testicle.
Lee HJ et al.
The effects of simultaneous combined exposure to CDMA and WCDMA electromagnetic fields on rat testicular function.
Rat testicular impairment induced by electromagnetic radiation from a conventional cellular telephone and the protective effects of the antioxidants vitamins C and E.