研究のタイプ: 医学/生物学の研究 (experimental study)

[マイクロ波の免疫学的影響に関するソビエトの研究の裏付け実験:ロシア免疫学の結果] med./bio.

Confirmation studies of Soviet research on immunological effects of microwaves: Russian immunology results.

掲載誌: Bioelectromagnetics 2010; 31 (8): 589-602

この研究は、1974~1991年に旧ソビエトで実施され、ラット免疫生殖に対する無線周波数(RF電磁界の長期低レベルばく露の影響を示した研究について再現実験した結果を示している。免疫実験の条件は以前の研究とできる限り同等なものとした。すなわちウィスター系ラットをケージ内に置き、ケージ内の入射出力密度5W/m2の2450MHz連続波RF電磁界遠方界へのばく露を1日7時間、週に5日、合計で30日間与えた。それによる全身SARは0.16W/kgであったと述べている。影響評価指標である脳と肝臓免疫学的パラメータは、オリジナルの研究と同様の補体結合試験(CFT)の他、最新のELISA試験でも測定した。その結果、CFTとELISAによって得た今回のデータは、以前の研究結果(自己免疫プロセスへの非熱的影響の可能性)を部分的に裏づけるものであった;RFばく露は脳組織抽出物での抗体形成をわずかに増加させたが、病理学的ではないようにみえる、と報告している。さらに生殖実験として、RFばく露ラットから採取した血清を別のラット注射して、妊娠、胎仔の発達、出生仔の発育への影響を調べた旧ソビエトの研究を、同じ動物モデルとプロトコルで実施した結果、以前の研究と全体的に同じ傾向の悪影響の可能性が示された、と報告している。

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研究目的(著者による)

To confirm previous data on the effects of 2450 MHz microwave exposure on immunological processes and teratology in rats.

詳細情報

A series of Soviet publications published from 1974-1986 (Vinogradov et al. 1974, Vinogradov et al. 1975, Shandala et al. 1983, Vinogradov et al. 1985, Vinogradov and Naumenko 1986, Shandala and Vinogradov 1982) dealt with the effects on the immune system of rats exposed to radiofrequency fields at 2375 MHz (0.1-10 W/m²). Because the findings of these studies served in part as the basis for setting exposure limit values in the former USSR, it was deemed necessary to perform confirmation studies using modern dosimetric and biological methods.
In the previous studies it was reported that radiofrequency exposure disrupted the antigenic structure of rat brain tissue and induced differences in immune responses. Moreover, these studies showed that blood serum from irradiated rats injected into intact non-exposed female rats on the 10th day of pregnancy led to increased postimplantation embryo mortality and decreased fetus body weight and size.
For immunological investigation blood, brain and liver of 48 rats (16 rats/group; sham exposure, exposure, cage control) was taken on days 7 (5 rats per group) and 14 (11 rats per group) after exposure.
For teratological experiments, blood sera of the 11 rats (14 days following exposure) were prepared. Sera from exposed and sham exposed rats were administered to two groups of female rats on the 10th day of pregnancy (21 rats/group). A third group of pregnant females received no treatment (control group).

影響評価項目

ばく露

ばく露 パラメータ
ばく露1: 2,450 MHz
ばく露時間: continuous for 7 hr/day, 5 days/week for 30 days
  • SAR: 0.16 W/kg (at 5 W/m²)
  • SAR: 0.16 W/kg average over mass (brain)
  • SAR: 9.9 W/kg peak (partial body) (tail skin)
  • SAR: 1 W/kg peak (brain)
  • 電力密度: 4.95 W/m² average over time (3.12 W/m² - 7.82 W/m² at the geometric center of the cages measured 0.22 m above the floor in the absence of animals and cages)
  • 電力: 71 W (+/- 7.3 W antenna input power)
  • 電力密度: 5 W/m² (incident power in the cage)

ばく露1

主たる特性
周波数 2,450 MHz
タイプ
  • electromagnetic field
特性
  • far field
偏波
  • elliptical
ばく露時間 continuous for 7 hr/day, 5 days/week for 30 days
Additional information +/- 50 MHz
ばく露装置
ばく露の発生源/構造
  • magnetron + helical antenna with an external diameter of 90 mm
Distance between exposed object and exposure source 2.35 m
チャンバの詳細 6 m x 3 m x 3.5 m anechoic chamber with walls, floor and ceiling covered with 0.05 m high ferrite-based pyramidal RF-absorber elements; outer walls of the chamber covered with welded steel sheets; antenna mounted on a bracket made of plastic and wood above the chamber's floor
ばく露装置の詳細 16 cages made of Plexiglas and PVC arranged in a ring inside the chamber with one rat per cage; ring of cages placed on 0.18 m high styrofoam stands
Sham exposure A sham exposure was conducted.
Additional information chamber 1 for the sham-exposed animals was 10 m x 3 m x 3.5 m, and chamber 2 for RF-exposed animals was 6 m x 3 m x 3.5 m; to make the chambers visually the same size, a black opaque curtain was put in chamber 1
パラメータ
測定量 種別 Method Mass 備考
SAR 0.16 W/kg - 推定値 whole body at 5 W/m²
SAR 0.16 W/kg average over mass 推定値 brain -
SAR 9.9 W/kg peak 計算値 partial body tail skin
SAR 1 W/kg peak 計算値 brain -
電力密度 4.95 W/m² average over time 測定値 - 3.12 W/m² - 7.82 W/m² at the geometric center of the cages measured 0.22 m above the floor in the absence of animals and cages
電力 71 W - 測定値 - +/- 7.3 W antenna input power
電力密度 5 W/m² - 測定値 - incident power in the cage

ばく露を受けた生物:

方法 影響評価項目/測定パラメータ/方法

研究対象とした生物試料:
研究対象とした臓器系:
調査の時期:
  • ばく露前
  • ばく露中
  • ばく露後

研究の主なアウトカム(著者による)

The data of the immunological examination partly confirmed the results of the Soviet research groups on the possible induction of autoimmune responses (increase of antibodies against brain antigens in the exposed group on the 14th day after exposure) and suggested stress reactions from radiofrequency exposure on day 7 after exposure (indicated by an increase in the content of amino acids bound with nitric oxide compounds, as well as lipids, including non-saturated fatty acids with short chains and their oxidation products).
The findings on prenatal development of offspring suggested possible adverse effects of the blood serum from exposed rats on pregnancy and embryo-foetal development in rats, in agreement with the earlier results of Shandala and Vinogradov (1982). The present study showed higher total in utero mortality (pooled data of days 15 and 20 of pregnancy) in rats injected with blood serum from exposed animals (55.6≥4.0%) than in rats injected with serum from sham exposed animals (11.7≥3.3%).
The application of these results in developing exposure standards is limited.

研究の種別:

研究助成

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