研究のタイプ: 医学/生物学の研究 (experimental study)

[実験動物の胚および胎仔に対する低電力密度のRF放射の影響] med./bio.

Low power density RF-radiation effects on experimental animal embryos and foetuses.

掲載誌: Biological Effects of Electromagnetic Radiation Springer, 2003: 579-602, ISBN 9783540429890

この研究は、以下の一連の実験により、さまざまな小動物の出生前発育に対する高周波電磁界ばく露の影響を調べた。第一実験(野外)は、アンテナパーク内の選定されたばく露場所にマウスを入れたケージをおく実験である。マウス(n = 12)の6か月間での5回の妊娠のうち、1回目は8カ所に分散させ、2 - 4回目は2ヶ所に固定(A、B群:各n = 6)、5回目は両群を、対照群(n = 6)が継続して置かれた場所に移動させた。その結果、AおよびB群は、対照と比較して、最初の妊娠から5番目の妊娠までの子孫の数の漸進的な減少が観察された。頭殿長、体重、および後部椎骨の数は、対照と比較して、AおよびB群の新生仔で増加した。奇形骨格骨化の遅延は観察されなかった、と報告している。第2実験は、ウズラの受精卵(n = 300)の胚発生の最初の3日間にさまざまなレベルの高周波電磁界ばく露を与えた。さらに第3実験は、60個のウズラの卵をばく露群、34個を擬似ばく露群とした。第4実験は、ニワトリ受精卵(n = 380)に異なるマイクロ波(CW、PW)ばく露を与えた。擬似ばく露群(n = 116)は孵卵の3日目と10日目に擬似ばく露処置を行った。その結果、第2、3実験では、外形奇形および内部奇形は観察されなかった;ウズラの体重および頭殿長ばく露群と対照群の間での有意差はなかった;第2実験での胚の死亡は、ばく露群16 %以上、対照群0 %、第3実験での胚の死亡は、ばく露群65 %、対照群11.7 %であった;第4実験では、CWばく露群の胎仔の62.78 %およびPWばく露群の胎仔の47.12 %に、発育遅延、孵化後の死亡、重度の奇形、胚および胎仔での死亡が見られた;それに対し擬似ばく露群での胎仔で悪影響が見られたのは3.44 %であった、と報告している。第5実験は、各12匹の妊娠ラットで2回のばく露実験を行った。最初の実験では、動物受精後1日から3日まで、2番目の実験では妊娠4日から9日までばく露を受けた。10匹のラット擬似ばく露対照群とした。その結果、すべてのばく露群の50 %以上が出産しなかった;これらのラット子宮の検査において、かなりの程度の変化(例えば、子宮内膜炎、結節)が観察された;対照群から生まれた新生仔およびばく露群から生まれた新生仔の間に、頭殿長および体重の有意差はなかった、と報告している。

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研究目的(著者による)

In a series of studies the effects of radiofrequency and microwave irradiation on the prenatal development in small animals were investigated.

詳細情報

The first study was carried out in a natural environment (in situ), while the remaining studies were performed in the laboratory.
Study 1: Mice (n=12) were pregnant five times over a period of six months. The first pregnancy took place on eight selected natural exposure locations (a, b, c, d, e, f, g and h) in the environment of an antenna-park. Then mice were moved to two locations (A=d and B=h, each n=6). For the fifth pregnancy, all animals were moved to location i (together with one control group (n=6)).
Study 2: Fertilized quail eggs (n=300) were exposed to various levels of radiofrequency irradiation during the first three days of embryonic development. In a further experiment (study 3), 60 quail eggs were exposed and 34 were sham-exposed.
Study 4: 380 fertilized chicken eggs were exposed to different microwaves (CW, PW) and 116 eggs were sham-exposed during the 3rd and 10th day of incubation.
Study 5: Two experiments with each 12 pregnant rats were performed. In the first experiment animals were exposed from the 1st to 3rd day after fertilization and in the second experiment from the 4th to the 9th day of gestation. 10 rats were sham-exposed.

影響評価項目

ばく露

ばく露 パラメータ
ばく露1:
  • unspecified
ばく露時間: continuous for 6 months
mice
ばく露2: 95 MHz
ばく露時間: continuous for 16 days
quail eggs
ばく露3: 9.31 GHz
ばく露時間: continuous for 3 days
quail eggs
ばく露4: 9.152 GHz
ばく露時間: from 3rd to 10th day of incubation
chicken
ばく露5: 9.152 GHz
Modulation type: CW
ばく露時間: from 3rd to 10th day of incubation
chicken
ばく露6: 9.35 GHz
ばく露時間: 1st to 3rd day after fertilization or 4th to 9th day of fertilization
rats
ばく露7: 9.3 GHz
ばく露時間: continuous for 4 days or 6 h/day on 4 days
rats
-

ばく露1

主たる特性
周波数
  • unspecified
ばく露時間 continuous for 6 months
Additional information mice
ばく露装置
ばく露の発生源/構造
  • different antennas from the antenna park
パラメータ
測定量 種別 Method Mass 備考
電力密度 1.053 µW/cm² average over time 測定値 - -
SAR 1.935 mW/kg - - unspecified -

ばく露2

主たる特性
周波数 95 MHz
タイプ
  • electromagnetic field
ばく露時間 continuous for 16 days
Additional information quail eggs
ばく露装置
ばく露の発生源/構造
  • log-periodic antenna
パラメータ
測定量 種別 Method Mass 備考
電力密度 15 µW/cm² - 測定値 - -
SAR 0.566 mW/kg - - - at 15 µW/cm²
電力密度 30 µW/cm² - 測定値 - -
SAR 1.131 mW/kg - - - at 30 µW/cm²
電力密度 60 µW/cm² - 測定値 - -
SAR 2.262 mW/kg - - - at 60 µW/cm²
電力密度 90 µW/cm² - 測定値 - -
SAR 3.393 mW/kg - - - at 90 µW/cm²
電力密度 120 µW/cm² - 測定値 - -
SAR 4.52 mW/kg - - - at 120 µW/cm²
電力密度 150 µW/cm² - 測定値 - -
SAR 5.655 mW/kg - - - at 150 µW/cm²

ばく露3

主たる特性
周波数 9.31 GHz
タイプ
  • electromagnetic field
ばく露時間 continuous for 3 days
Additional information quail eggs
Modulation
Modulation type cf. additional information
Additional information

pulse modulated

ばく露装置
ばく露の発生源/構造
  • parabolic reflector antenna
Sham exposure A sham exposure was conducted.
パラメータ
測定量 種別 Method Mass 備考
電力密度 5 µW/cm² - 測定値 - -
電力密度 120 µW/cm² maximum 測定値 - -
SAR 189 µW/kg - - - at 5 µW/cm²

ばく露4

主たる特性
周波数 9.152 GHz
タイプ
  • electromagnetic field
特性
  • far field
ばく露時間 from 3rd to 10th day of incubation
Additional information chicken
Modulation
Modulation type cf. additional information
Additional information

pulse modulated

ばく露装置
ばく露の発生源/構造
  • 27 cm horn-fed parabolic antenna
Distance between exposed object and exposure source 5 m
Sham exposure A sham exposure was conducted.
パラメータ
測定量 種別 Method Mass 備考
電力密度 8.8 µW/cm² - 測定値 - -
SAR 0.33 mW/kg - - - -

ばく露5

主たる特性
周波数 9.152 GHz
タイプ
  • electromagnetic field
特性
  • far field
ばく露時間 from 3rd to 10th day of incubation
Additional information chicken
Modulation
Modulation type CW
ばく露装置
ばく露の発生源/構造
  • 27 cm horn-fed parabolic antenna
Distance between exposed object and exposure source 5 m
Sham exposure A sham exposure was conducted.
パラメータ
測定量 種別 Method Mass 備考
電力密度 8.8 µW/cm² - 測定値 - -
SAR 0.33 mW/kg - - - -

ばく露6

主たる特性
周波数 9.35 GHz
タイプ
  • electromagnetic field
特性
  • far field
ばく露時間 1st to 3rd day after fertilization or 4th to 9th day of fertilization
Additional information rats
Modulation
Modulation type cf. additional information
Additional information

pulse modulated

ばく露装置
ばく露の発生源/構造
  • horn-fed parabolic antenna
Distance between exposed object and exposure source 5 m
Sham exposure A sham exposure was conducted.
パラメータ
測定量 種別 Method Mass 備考
電力密度 5 µW/cm² - 測定値 - -

ばく露7

主たる特性
周波数 9.3 GHz
タイプ
  • electromagnetic field
特性
  • far field
ばく露時間 continuous for 4 days or 6 h/day on 4 days
Additional information rats
ばく露装置
ばく露の発生源/構造
  • horn-fed parabolic antenna
Sham exposure A sham exposure was conducted.
パラメータ

No parameters are specified for this exposure.

ばく露を受けた生物:

方法 影響評価項目/測定パラメータ/方法

研究対象とした生物試料:
研究対象とした臓器系:
調査の時期:
  • ばく露後

研究の主なアウトカム(著者による)

Study 1: For the experimental groups A and B a progressive decrease of the number of the offsprings from the first to the fifth pregnancy was observed compared to the controls. The crown-rump length, the weight and the number of posterior vertebrae were increased in the newborns from groups A and B compared to the controls. Malformations were scarce and no retardation of skeletal ossification has been observed.
Study 2 and 3: In both studies neither external nor internal malformations were observed, nor significant changes in weight and crown-rump length in both controls or exposed quails. In study 2, more than 16% of the exposed embryos died, while no embryonic deaths have been detected in controls. In study 3, 65% of embryonic and foetal deaths were observed among exposed eggs compared to 11.7% among the controls.
Study 4: 62.78% of the CW- and 47.12% of the PW-irradiated foetuses presented development retardation, post-hatching mortality, severe malformations, embryonic and foetal deaths. Only 3.44% of the sham exposed foetuses presented adverse effects. In the PW-irradiated foetuses a decrease of the pre-hatching period by 48 hours was observed.
Study 5: More than 50% of all exposed groups did not give birth. Examinations of uteri of these rats have shown alterations (e.g. endometritis, nodules) to a great extent. No statistically significant deviations in crown-rump length or weight were observed for controls and newborns from the exposed rats.
Experimental results on various species of experimental animals have indicated adverse effects, strongly varying in intensity, from traceable to very grave, including embryonic and foetal deaths. These effects seem to be more pronounced in the early stages of the embryonic life.

研究の種別:

研究助成

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