研究のタイプ: 医学/生物学の研究 (experimental study)

[ヒトリンパ球におけるELF電磁界照射後のガドリニウムの細胞毒性および遺伝毒性の増強] med./bio.

Enhanced cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of gadolinium following ELF-EMF irradiation in human lymphocytes.

掲載誌: Drug Chem Toxicol 2014; 37 (4): 440-447

この研究は、磁気共鳴画像(MRI)の造影剤として用いられるガドリニウム(Gd)と超低周波電磁界(ELF-EMF)との共ばく露が正常なヒトリンパ球に与える影響を調べた。著者は、MRIスキャナから発生する勾配磁界をELF-EMFと見なして、ELF-EMFで実験したと述べている。ソレノイドコイル中心部にリンパ球培養皿を置き、60Hz、0.8 mTに24時間または48時間、培養中にばく露した。Gd濃度は、0、0.2、0.4、0.8、1.2 mMとし、Gd単独ばく露とGd+ELF-EMFの共ばく露について、培養終了後、小核MNアッセイ、トリパンブルー色素排除試験法、単細胞ゲル電気泳動法、アポトーシス分析などにより細胞毒性を検査した。その結果、Gd単独ばく露群では、濃度および培養時間に依存して、細胞生存率の低下、MN発生頻度・DNA単鎖切断アポトーシスによる細胞死活性酸素種産生の増加が見られた;ELF-EMFとの共ばく露群では、Gd単独により誘導される細胞死、MN頻度、オリーブテイルモーメント、アポトーシスが増加した、と報告している。

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研究目的(著者による)

To investigate the effects of extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMF) on the toxicity of gadolinium in human lymphocytes.

詳細情報

The chemical element gadolinium with the atomic number 64 is used as a contrast agent in magnetic resonance imaging. Gadolinium is known to be toxic. However, the combined effects of gadolinium and extremely low frequency magnetic fields, as patients are exposed to during magnetic resonance imaging, have not been investigated by now.
Human lymphocytes were treated with different concentrations of gadolinium (0 mM (control group), 0.2 mM, 0.4 mM, 0.8 mM, 1.2 mM) while exposed to a 60 Hz magnetic field or sham exposed.

影響評価項目

ばく露

ばく露 パラメータ
ばく露1: 60 Hz
ばく露時間: continuous for up to 72 hours

ばく露1

主たる特性
周波数 60 Hz
タイプ
  • magnetic field
ばく露時間 continuous for up to 72 hours
ばく露装置
ばく露の発生源/構造
ばく露装置の詳細 two identical, electrically coupled solenoid coils (length 0.30 m, diameter 0.15 m) were wound with 350 turns/m of number-16 bifilar magnet wire on a cylindrical acrylic support; uniformity of the magnetic field in the active exposure volume was ± 2.5%; no significant temperature variations were observed during sham exposure and magnetic field exposure (37 ± 0.5°C)
Sham exposure A sham exposure was conducted.
Additional information sham exposed cultures were tested before the experiments with the same exposure system but with the power supply switched off
パラメータ
測定量 種別 Method Mass 備考
磁束密度 0.8 mT - 測定値 - -

Reference articles

  • Walleczek J et al. (1999): [非電離の60 Hz電磁界への非熱的なばく露後の、放射線によって誘導されたHPRT遺伝子の突然変異発生頻度の増加]

ばく露を受けた生物:

方法 影響評価項目/測定パラメータ/方法

研究対象とした生物試料:
調査の時期:
  • ばく露前
  • ばく露中
  • ばく露後

研究の主なアウトカム(著者による)

Lymphocytes which were treated with gadolinium showed a time-dependent and concentration-dependent significant decrease in cell viability in comparison to the control group. A combined treatment of gadolinium (0.4 mM, 0.8 mM, or 1.2 mM) and 60 Hz magnetic field resulted in a further significant decrease compared to gadolinium treatment alone. The apoptosis rate and the micronucleus formation were significantly increased in cells treated with 1.2 mM gadolinium and a 60 Hz magnetic field compared to the control group and compared to gadolinium alone. The number of DNA strand breaks was significantly increased in gadolinium treated cells (0.2 mM, 0.4 mM, or 0.8 mM) compared to the control. Furthermore, exposure to the 60 Hz magnetic field alone led to a significant increase in the number of strand breaks compared to the control. A combined treatment of gadolinium and exposure to the 60 Hz magnetic field led to a further significant increase in the number of strand breaks compared to gadolinium treatment alone.
In gadolinium treated cells (0.2 mM, 0.4 mM, or 0.8 mM), the level of reactive oxygen species was significantly increased in a concentration-dependent manner compared to the control. A combined treatment with 0.8 mM gadolinium and a 60 Hz magnetic field resulted in higher levels of reactive oxygen species in comparison to gadolinium treatment alone. An addition of N-acetylcysteine prevented this increase.
The data suggest that gadolinium induces DNA damage and apoptotic cell death in human lymphocytes and that these effects could be enhanced by extremely low frequency magnetic fields.

研究の種別:

研究助成

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