Study type: Medical/biological study (experimental study)

Combined effects of 872 MHz radiofrequency radiation and ferrous chloride on reactive oxygen species production and DNA damage in human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells. med./bio.

Published in: Bioelectromagnetics 2010; 31 (6): 417-424

Aim of study (acc. to author)

To study the possible synergistic effects of radiofrequency exposure and ferrous chloride (iron ions were also used in previous studies: Brescia et al. 2009 and Zmyslony et al. 2004) on reactive oxygen species production and DNA damage.

Background/further details

Four groups were included: 1) sham exposure, 2) radiofrequency exposure, 3) chemical treatment, 4) chemical treatment and radiofrequency exposure. In the reactive oxygen species production experiments, the cells were exposed to radiofrequency and 10 µg/ml ferrous chloride for 1 h (group 4). In the comet assay experiments, the exposure time was 3 h and an additional chemical treatment (0.015% diethyl maleate (DEM)) was used to make DNA damage level observable. DEM decreases the cellular level of reduced glutathione (one of the main antioxidant systems against reactive oxygen species) and it was added 15 min before exposure to ferrous chloride and/or radiofrequency exposure.
Methyl methanesulfonate was used for positive control.

Endpoint

Exposure

Exposure Parameters
Exposure 1: 872 MHz
Modulation type: CW
Exposure duration: continuous for 1 h for the ROS production experiment; continuous for 3 hr for the comet assay experiment
Exposure 2: 872 MHz
Modulation type: pulsed
Exposure duration: continuous for 1 h for the ROS production experiment; continuous for 3 hr for the comet assay experiment

General information

Cells were treated in four groups: i) sham exposure ii) RF radiation iii) chemical treatment iv) chemical treatment + RF irradiation

Exposure 1

Main characteristics
Frequency 872 MHz
Type
Exposure duration continuous for 1 h for the ROS production experiment; continuous for 3 hr for the comet assay experiment
Modulation
Modulation type CW
Exposure setup
Exposure source
Setup 248 mm x 175 mm x 420 mm aluminum waveguide with heat exchanger; cells placed on the glass surface of the heat exchanger
Sham exposure A sham exposure was conducted.
Parameters
Measurand Value Type Method Mass Remarks
SAR 5 W/kg - - - -

Exposure 2

Main characteristics
Frequency 872 MHz
Type
Exposure duration continuous for 1 h for the ROS production experiment; continuous for 3 hr for the comet assay experiment
Additional info GSM like field
Modulation
Modulation type pulsed
Repetition frequency 217 Hz
Exposure setup
Exposure source
Sham exposure A sham exposure was conducted.
Parameters
Measurand Value Type Method Mass Remarks
SAR 5 W/kg - - - -

Reference articles

  • Höytö A et al. (2006): Modest increase in temperature affects ODC activity in L929 cells: Low-level radiofrequency radiation does not.

Exposed system:

Methods Endpoint/measurement parameters/methodology

Main outcome of study (acc. to author)

The data indicate that neither intracellular reactive oxygen species production, DNA damage nor cell viability in human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells were affected by continuous wave- or GSM-modulated radiofrequency exposure with or without co-exposure to ferrous chloride or ferrous chloride + DEM.

Study character:

Study funded by

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