To study the induction of reactive oxygen species in murine cells exposed to radiofrequency irradiation at 900 MHz, with or without co-exposure to the drinking water mutagen and carcinogen 3-chloro-4-dichloromethyl-5-hydroxy-2-5H-furanone (MX).
3-chloro-4-dichloromethyl-5-hydroxy-2-5H-furanone (MX) is a potent bacterial mutagen produced during chlorination of drinking water.
MX treatment was performed at a subtoxic level of 500 µM, and the radiofrequency field exposure was carried out during the first 10 or 30 min of MX treatment. The formation of reactive oxygen species was investigated at different times until one hour after radiofrequency exposure/co-exposure.
|Chamber||The exposure chamber was made of a rectangular waveguide (124 x 248 x 500 mm) and two coax-to-waveguide adapters and was terminated on a matched load.|
|Setup||Two T-75 cell culture flasks containing 15 ml of medium were inserted into the waveguide. The narrow side of the waveguide and the E field were horizontal, i.e., parallel to the liquid layer (2 mm thick) in the rectangular plastic flask.|
|Sham exposure||A sham exposure was conducted.|
|Additional info||The temperature of the waveguide was maintained at 37.0 ± 0.1°C by thermostatted water circulating in a 30-m-long plastic tube (8 mm inner diameter) wound around the waveguide and kept in contact by wooden boards. A polyurethane foam cover was used for thermal insulation.|
MX treatment alone resulted in a statistically significant increase in the formation of reactive oxygen species for all the treatment durations investigated, confirming that MX is an inductor of oxidative stress in these cells.
But the data provided no evidence that 900 MHz radiofrequency exposure, either alone or in combination with MX, induced formation of reactive oxygen species under any of the experimental conditions investigated.