The exposure system consisted of four WPCs, each fed by a different power level in a blinded procedure. Two WPCs shielded by metal grid boxes were placed in each of two incubators (5% CO2 and 95% air). Each WPC or at least each incubator had a dummy culturePetri dish for temperature measurement.
The WPC [Laval et al., 2000] consisted of two parallel plates (15 x 15 x 2.9 cm³), short-circuited at the edges by four posts. The outer conductor of the RF supply coaxial cable was connected to the top plate, and the inner conductor was connected to the ground plane. The temperature of the exposed samples was maintained at 36.9 ± 0.5°C by spiral coils with circulating water positioned on each plate. Four 35-mm Petri dishes containing 3 ml of diluted blood were placed inside the cell where the E-field distribution was quite uniform.
Six conditions were tested in duplicate: RFexposure at peak SARs of 0 (sham), 1, 5 and 10 W/kg, a positive (MMC-treated) control, and a negative (unexposed and untreated) control. Positive and negative controls were kept for 24 h in a third CO2incubator at 37°C.
The SAR distribution was determined by numerical and experimental dosimetry. In the numerical model using the Finite Integration Technique (FIT), the Petri dishes were filled with 1 ml of blood at the bottom and 2 ml of culture medium on top. The simulations showed that almost 90% of the blood volume was exposed at about 0.30 W/kg per W, and the measured efficiency was about 0.35 ± 0.10 W/kg per W.
Speit G et al.
Genotoxic effects of exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) in HL-60 cells are not reproducible.
Zeni O et al.
Induction of an adaptive response in human blood lymphocytes exposed to radiofrequency fields: Influence of the universal mobile telecommunication system (UMTS) signal and the specific absorption rate.
Esmekaya MA et al.
Mutagenic and morphologic impacts of 1.8 GHz radiofrequency radiation on human peripheral blood lymphocytes (hPBLs) and possible protective role of pre-treatment with Ginkgo biloba (EGb 761).
Sannino A et al.
Induction of adaptive response in human blood lymphocytes exposed to 900 MHz radiofrequency fields: Influence of cell cycle.
Ziemann C et al.
Absence of genotoxic potential of 902 MHz (GSM) and 1747 MHz (DCS) wireless communication signals: In vivo two-year bioassay in B6C3F1 mice.
Valbonesi P et al.
Evaluation of HSP70 expression and DNA damage in cells of a human trophoblast cell line exposed to 1.8 GHz amplitude-modulated radiofrequency fields.
Lee JJ et al.
Acute radio frequency irradiation does not affect cell cycle, cellular migration, and invasion.
Hoyto A et al.
Radiofrequency radiation does not significantly affect ornithine decarboxylase activity, proliferation, or caspase-3 activity of fibroblasts in different physiological conditions.
Palumbo R et al.
Exposure to 900 MHz radiofrequency radiation induces caspase 3 activation in proliferating human lymphocytes.
Speit G et al.
Genotoxic effects of exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) in cultured mammalian cells are not independently reproducible.