Study type: Medical/biological study (experimental study)

Effects of global system for mobile communications 1800 MHz radiofrequency electromagnetic fields on gene and protein expression in MCF-7 cells. med./bio.

Published in: Proteomics 2006; 6 (17): 4732-4738

Aim of study (acc. to author)

To study the effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic field exposure on gene and protein expression profiles in human breast cancer cell line MCF-7.

Endpoint

Exposure

Exposure Parameters
Exposure 1: 1,800 MHz
Modulation type: pulsed
Exposure duration: intermittent, 5 min on/10 min off, for 24 h
transcriptome analysis
Exposure 2: 1,800 MHz
Modulation type: pulsed
Exposure duration: intermittent, 5 min on/10 min off, for 1, 3, 6, 12, and 24 h
proteome analysis
Exposure 3: 1,800 MHz
Modulation type: pulsed
Exposure duration: continuous for 1, 3, 6, 12, and 24 h
proteome analysis

General information

The computer controlled exposure system has been described in detail by the designer and other groups [Schönborn et al., 2001 and Diem et al., 2005].

Exposure 1

Main characteristics
Frequency 1,800 MHz
Type
Charakteristic
  • guided field
Exposure duration intermittent, 5 min on/10 min off, for 24 h
Additional info transcriptome analysis
Modulation
Modulation type pulsed
Duty cycle 12.5 %
Repetition frequency 217 Hz
Pulse type rectangular
Additional info

GSM signal

Exposure setup
Exposure source
Chamber Two waveguides, one for RF and one for sham exposure, were placed inside a conventional incubator at 37°C, 5% CO2 and 95% air.
Setup Six 35-mm Petri dishes were placed in each waveguide in a dish holder holding them in the H-field maximum of the standing wave and exposed simultaneously in E polarization. The system enabled the exposure of monolayers of cells with a SAR non-uniformity of less than 30%.
Sham exposure A sham exposure was conducted.
Additional info The temperature of the system remained at 37 ± 0.1°C during the whole exposure duration, and the temperature difference between RF and sham exposed cultures never exceeded 0.1°C.
Parameters
Measurand Value Type Method Mass Remarks
SAR 2 W/kg mean - - -
SAR 3.5 W/kg mean - - -

Exposure 2

Main characteristics
Frequency 1,800 MHz
Type
Charakteristic
  • guided field
Exposure duration intermittent, 5 min on/10 min off, for 1, 3, 6, 12, and 24 h
Additional info proteome analysis
Modulation
Modulation type pulsed
Duty cycle 12.5 %
Repetition frequency 217 Hz
Pulse type rectangular
Additional info

GSM signal

Exposure setup
Exposure source
Sham exposure A sham exposure was conducted.
Parameters
Measurand Value Type Method Mass Remarks
SAR 3.5 W/kg mean - - -

Exposure 3

Main characteristics
Frequency 1,800 MHz
Type
Charakteristic
  • guided field
Exposure duration continuous for 1, 3, 6, 12, and 24 h
Additional info proteome analysis
Modulation
Modulation type pulsed
Duty cycle 12.5 %
Repetition frequency 217 Hz
Pulse type rectangular
Additional info

GSM signal

Exposure setup
Exposure source
Sham exposure A sham exposure was conducted.
Parameters
Measurand Value Type Method Mass Remarks
SAR 3.5 W/kg mean - - -

Reference articles

  • Diem E et al. (2005): Non-thermal DNA breakage by mobile-phone radiation (1800 MHz) in human fibroblasts and in transformed GFSH-R17 rat granulosa cells in vitro.
  • Schönborn F et al. (2001): Basis for optimization of in vitro exposure apparatus for health hazard evaluations of mobile communications.

Exposed system:

Methods Endpoint/measurement parameters/methodology

Investigated system:
Time of investigation:
  • after exposure

Main outcome of study (acc. to author)

DNA microarray analysis identified a handful of consistent changed genes after exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic field at specific absorption rates of up to 3.5 W/kg for 24 h. However, these differentially transcribed genes could not be further confirmed by RT-PCR assay.
Meanwhile, systematic proteome analysis revealed that a few but different proteins were differentially expressed under continuous or intermittent radiofrequency electromagnetic field exposure at SAR of 3.5 W/kg for 24 h or less, implying that the observed effects might have occurred by chance.
In conclusion, the data do not provide convincing evidence that radiofrequency electromagnetic field exposure under the present experimental conditions can produce distinct effects on gene and protein expression in the MCF-7 cells.

Study character:

Study funded by

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