Study type: Medical/biological study (experimental study)

Oxidative stress induced by 1.8 GHz radio frequency electromagnetic radiation and effects of garlic extract in rats med./bio.

Published in: Int J Radiat Biol 2012; 88 (11): 799-805

Aim of study (acc. to author)

To study the oxidative damage induced by radiofrequency electromagnetic exposure emitted by mobile telephones and the protective effect of a garlic extract used as an antioxidant.

Background/further details

66 rats were divided into three groups (n=22 per group): 1.) exposure group, 2.) exposure + garlic administration (500 mg/kg/d) and 3.) control group. At the end of the study, blood and brain tissues were collected.



Exposure Parameters
Exposure 1: 1,750–1,850 MHz
Exposure duration: continuous for 1 h/day during 3 weeks

General information

Rats were divided into the following three groups: i) EMF exposure ii) EMF exposure + daily treatment with 500 mg/kg body weight garlic extract iii) control

Exposure 1

Main characteristics
Frequency 1,750–1,850 MHz
Exposure duration continuous for 1 h/day during 3 weeks
Modulation type cf. additional info
Additional info


Exposure setup
Exposure source
  • monopole
  • GSM simulator
Distance between exposed object and exposure source 6 cm
Setup rats kept during exposure in plastic constrainers positioned radially around a 15 cm high antenna
Sham exposure A sham exposure was conducted.
Measurand Value Type Method Mass Remarks
power 1 W - - - output power
SAR 0.4 W/kg - calculated whole body -
electric field strength 17.23 V/m average over time measured - ± 1.48 V/m

Exposed system:

Methods Endpoint/measurement parameters/methodology

Investigated system:
Investigated organ system:
Time of investigation:
  • after exposure

Main outcome of study (acc. to author)

No differences among the groups with regard to the malondialdehyde levels in serum and brain tissue were detected. Although the serum "advanced oxidation protein products" levels did not differ among the groups, the "advanced oxidation protein products" levels in the brain homogenates of the exposed group were higher than those of the control group. In the exposed group with garlic administration, there was a statistically significant decrease in the "advanced oxidation protein products" levels compared to the exposed group. There was no statistically significant difference between the control group and the exposed group with garlic administration. The serum nitric oxide levels increased significantly in the exposed group and in the exposed group with garlic administration compared with the control group. However, there was no difference between the exposed group and the exposed group with garlic administration regarding the serum nitric oxide levels. No differences were found in the serum levels of paraoxonase among the groups. No paraoxonase was found in the brain homogenates.
The authors summarize that the exposure to a radiofrequency electromagnetic field at 1.8 GHz did not cause lipid peroxidation and nitric oxide increase but led to protein oxidation in the brain tissue and an increase in serum nitric oxide level. Furthermore, an administration of garlic reduced the protein oxidation in the brain tissue but did not have any effects on serum nitric oxide levels.

Study character:

Study funded by

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