Study type: Medical/biological study (experimental study)

Effect of 900 MHz radiofrequency radiation on oxidative stress in rat brain and serum med./bio.

Published in: Electromagn Biol Med 2013; 32 (1): 20-29

Aim of study (acc. to author)

To evaluate the oxidative stress in the brain tissue and serum of rats exposed to a radiofrequency electromagnetic field and the potential protective effect of garlic.

Background/further details

Three groups of rats were examined (n=22 per group): 1.) sham exposure, 2.) exposure and 3.) exposure + 500 mg/kg/day garlic.



Exposure Parameters
Exposure 1: 850–950 MHz
Exposure duration: continuous for 1 h/day for 3 weeks

General information

Rats were divided into the following three groups: i) sham exposure ii) exposure iii) exposure + daily treatment with 500 mg/kg body weight garlic extract

Exposure 1

Main characteristics
Frequency 850–950 MHz
Exposure duration continuous for 1 h/day for 3 weeks
Exposure setup
Exposure source
  • monopole
  • GSM simulator
Distance between exposed object and exposure source 4 cm
Chamber 11 rats were simultanously exposed in a pie cage restrainer (for 12 rats) with an air hole
Setup monopole antenna was placed in the center of the pie cage restrainer; constrainers positioned radially around a 20 cm high antenna; distance between antenna and rat head: ca. 4 cm
Sham exposure A sham exposure was conducted.
Measurand Value Type Method Mass Remarks
power 2 W - - - output power
power density 3.18 W/m² - measured - -
electric field strength 34.62 V/m - measured - -
SAR 1.08 W/kg - measured and calculated - -

Reference articles

Exposed system:

Methods Endpoint/measurement parameters/methodology

Investigated system:
Time of investigation:
  • before exposure
  • after exposure

Main outcome of study (acc. to author)

The serum nitric oxide levels were significantly increased in the exposed groups with and without garlic compared to the sham exposed group, but no significant difference was found between both exposure groups.
In the brain homogenates of the exposed group without garlic, the levels of malondialdehyde and the protein oxidation were significantly increased compared to the sham exposed group. An administration of garlic diminished these effects. Hence, no difference between the sham exposed group and the exposed group with garlic was observed in the brain tissue.
The authors conclude that exposure to a radiofrequency electromagnetic field of 900 MHz increased oxidative stress in rat brain and serum and that this effect was blocked in the brain by an administration of garlic.

Study character:

Study funded by

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