Study type: Medical/biological study (experimental study)

Increased DNA oxidation (8-OHdG) and protein oxidation (AOPP) by Low level electromagnetic field (2.45 GHz) in rat brain and protective effect of garlic med./bio.

Published in: Int J Radiat Biol 2014; 90 (10): 892-896

Aim of study (acc. to author)

The effects of exposure of rats to a 2.45 GHz electromagnetic field on oxidative stress in the blood and in the brain and the protective effect of garlic should be investigated.

Background/further details

Rats were divided into 3 groups (n=12 each): 1) exposure to the electromagnetic field, 2) exposure to the electromagnetic field and administration of garlic extract (500 mg/kg daily), 3) sham exposure.



Exposure Parameters
Exposure 1: 2.45 GHz
Modulation type: pulsed
Exposure duration: continuous for 1 h/day for 30 days

Exposure 1

Main characteristics
Frequency 2.45 GHz
Exposure duration continuous for 1 h/day for 30 days
Modulation type pulsed
Repetition frequency 217 Hz
Exposure setup
Exposure source
  • monopole
Chamber plexi glass pie-cage restrainer
Setup rats were put in each section of the restrainer individually and the antenna was placed in the center to achieve a homogeneous field; temperature was fixed at 22 ± 1°C
Sham exposure A sham exposure was conducted.
Measurand Value Type Method Mass Remarks
power 2 W - - - output power
power density 1.04 mW/cm² mean - - -
electric field strength 3.17 V/m minimum measured - -
electric field strength 4.88 V/m maximum measured - -
electric field strength 3.68 V/m mean measured - ± 0.36 V/m
SAR 0.02 W/kg - calculated - -

Reference articles

  • Avci B et al. (2012): Oxidative stress induced by 1.8 GHz radio frequency electromagnetic radiation and effects of garlic extract in rats
  • Esmekaya MA et al. (2010): Pulse modulated 900 MHz radiation induces hypothyroidism and apoptosis in thyroid cells: A light, electron microscopy and immunohistochemical study
  • Dasdag S et al. (2008): Mobile phone exposure does not induce apoptosis on spermatogenesis in rats
  • Ferreira AR et al. (2006): Oxidative stress effects on the central nervous system of rats after acute exposure to ultra high frequency electromagnetic fields

Exposed system:

Methods Endpoint/measurement parameters/methodology

Investigated system:
Time of investigation:
  • after exposure

Main outcome of study (acc. to author)

No significant differences were found in the lipid peroxidation between the groups.
Likewise, no significant differences in the amount of oxidative protein damages in the brain were found between the groups. However, in the blood plasma, the amount of oxidative protein damages was significantly increased in the exposure group without garlic (group 1) compared to the sham exposure group and exposure with garlic (group 2).
The amount of oxidative DNA damages was significantly increased both in group 1 and 2 compared to the sham exposure group in the blood plasma. However, in the brain it was significantly increased in group 1 only compared to group 2 and the sham exposure group.
The authors conclude that exposure of rats to a 2.45 GHz electromagnetic field could induce oxidative stress in the blood and in the brain and that garlic might attenuate these effects.

Study character:

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