The experimental chamber (W 115 mm x H 80 mm x L 240 mm) was made of aluminium and therefore shielded. The temperature was maintained at 37 ± 0.2°C by cooling water circulating through its bottom. Gas from an incubator was circulated through the cavity to maintain CO2 density and humidity.
The RFsignal was fed by a λ/8 monopole antenna (22 mm long) at the λ/4 position of the top plate of the cavity exciting only the fundamental TE102mode and allowing a uniform exposure of a 100-mm culture dish. The 100-mm Petri dish having an inner diameter of 85 mm, a 1-mm wall, and a 91-mm lid was filled with 18 ml of culture medium standing 4 mm high.
SAR was determined numerically using the FDTD technique and by measurements using fluoroptic temperature probes with a thermal resolution of 0.1 °C. The temperature rise was measured at nine positions inside the Petri dish. The results of both methods were in excellent agreement.
Chauhan V et al.
Analysis of proto-oncogene and heat-shock protein gene expression in human derived cell-lines exposed in vitro to an intermittent 1.9 GHz pulse-modulated radiofrequency field.
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ROS release and Hsp70 expression after exposure to 1,800 MHz radiofrequency electromagnetic fields in primary human monocytes and lymphocytes.
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Biological stress responses to radio frequency electromagnetic radiation: are mobile phones really so (heat) shocking?
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Exposure to 2.45 GHz electromagnetic fields induces hsp70 at a high SAR of more than 20 W/kg but not at 5W/kg in human glioma MO54 cells.
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Exposure to global system for mobile communication (GSM) cellular phone radiofrequency alters gene expression, proliferation, and morphology of human skin fibroblasts.
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Stress proteins are not induced in mammalian cells exposed to radiofrequency or microwave radiation.