To study oxidative damage and antioxidant enzyme status in the liver of guinea pigs exposed to mobile phone-like radiofrequency irradiation and the potential protective effects of N-acetyl-cysteine and epigallocatechin-gallate (component of green tea) on the oxidative damage.
96 male guinea pigs were divided into nine groups. Twelve animals were included in each of the three sham exposed groups (treatment with saline solution, N-acetyl-cysteine or epigallocatechin-gallate, groups 1-3). In each of these groups, six animals were subjected to 10 minutes sham exposure and the other six for 20 minutes sham exposure. Ten animals were used in each of the other six treatment groups: 4.) 10 minutes radiofrequency exposure + 1 ml saline solution, 5.) 20 minutes radiofrequency exposure + 1 ml saline solution, 6.) 10 minutes radiofrequency exposure + 1 ml N-acetyl-cysteine (300 mg/kg body weight), 7.) 20 minutes radiofrequency exposure + 1 ml N-acetyl-cysteine, 8.) 10 minutes radiofrequency exposure + 1 ml epigallocatechin-gallate (12.5 mg/kg body weight), 9.) 20 minutes radiofrequency exposure + 1 ml epigallocatechin-gallate. The saline or antioxidant solutions were injected 30 minutes before exposure.
rats were divided into the following groups: i) sham exposure + 1 ml saline ii) sham exposure + 1 ml N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) iii) sham exposure + 1 ml epigallocatechin-gallate (EGCG) iv) 10 min. RF exposure + 1 ml saline v) 20 min. RF exposure + 1 ml saline vi) 10 min. RF exposure + 1 ml NAC vii) 20 min. RF exposure + 1 ml NAC viii) 10 min. RF exposure + 1 ml EGCG ix) 20 min. RF exposure + 1 ml EGCG
|Exposure duration||continuous for 10 min./day on 7 days or 20 min./day on 7 days|
|Pulse width||0.576 ms|
|Duty cycle||12.5 %|
|Repetition frequency||217 Hz|
|SAR||0.38 W/kg||average over mass||estimated||whole body||-|
Significant increases in malondialdehyde and total nitric oxide levels and decreases in enzyme activities of superoxide dismutase, myeloperoxidase and glutathione peroxidase were found in the liver of guinea pigs after radiofrequency exposure (in all exposed groups). The extent of oxidative damage was proportional to the duration of exposure. Treatment with N-acetyl-cysteine and epigallocatechin-gallate markedly decreased lipid peroxidation and nitrite oxide levels and affected the antioxidant status in animals exposed to mobile phone irradiation.
The authors conclude that mobile phone-like irradiation induces oxidative damage and changes the enzyme activities of antioxidant enzymes in the liver. The adverse effect of radiofrequency exposure may be related to the duration of mobile phone use. N-acetyl-cysteine and epigallocatechin-gallate protect the liver tissue against the radiofrequency-induced oxidative damage and enhance antioxidant enzyme activities.