In the first experiment, rats were exposed (n=6) or sham exposed (n=6) to microwaves (2.45 GHz). In the second experiment, rats were exposed to the radiofrequency field of a mobile phone (900 MHz) (remark EMF-Portal: in the second experiment, no information was given about number of animals and treatment of control animals).
Exposure duration: continuous for 2 hours/day for 35 days
Modulation type: pulsed
Exposure duration: intermittend for 2 hours/day for 35 days
|Exposure room||plexiglas cage with ventilation holes of 1 cm diameter|
|Setup||exposure cage with animals was kept in an anechoic chamber; a microwave oven was used as exposure source connected to a 40 db attenuation and a horn antenna; animals were facing the horn antenna; temperature was maintained at 25-27°C|
|Sham exposure||A sham exposure was conducted.|
|Exposure duration||intermittend for 2 hours/day for 35 days|
|Exposure room||plexiglas cage with ventilation holes of 1 cm diameter in which rats were restricted (mobility 1-2 cm) during exposure|
|Setup||exposure cage with animals was kept in an anechoic chamber; GSM mobile phones were kept on the top of the cage in such a configuration that there was preferential emissions towards the animals in the cage; every cage was attached with a seperate mobile phone; cell phone was in standby; calls lasted 1 min (no information given how many calls in the two hours); cell phones were in silent mode without vibration|
No parameters are specified for this exposure.
Rats exposed to microwaves (2.45 GHz) or to the radiofrequency field of a mobile phone (900 MHz) showed significantly decreased enzyme activities of the glutathione peroxidase and the superoxide dismutase when compared to the control, while the enzyme activity of the catalase and the lipid peroxidation were significantly increased.
Additionally, all liver values in the serum of exposed rats (microwave or mobile phone) were significantly increased in comparison to the control group.
The authors conclude that exposure to microwaves (2.45 GHz) or to the radiofrequency field of a mobile phone (900 MHz) could lead to oxidative stress in the liver and to increased liver values in rats.