Rabbits were exposed during the gestational phase (intrauterine; from 15th to 22nd day of gestation) and/or in the age of one month (extrauterine exposure). A total of 72 female (n=36) and male (n=36) rabbits were randomly divided into four groups: 1) sham exposure group, 2) no intrauterine exposure, but extrauterine exposure, 3) intrauterine exposure only (no extrauterine exposure) and 4) intrauterine and extrauterine exposure.
According to the authors, female rabbits were exposed during 7 days, whereas males were exposed during 14 days (however, this is contradictory to the data on the groups above (remark of EMF-Portal editor)).
animals were treated in the following four groups: i) sham exposure ii) EMF exposure at the age of one month iii) intrauterine EMF exposure between day 15 and day 22 of gestation iv) intrauterine EMF exposure between day 15 and day 22 of gestation + EMF exposure at the age of one month
|Exposure duration||continuous for 15 min/day on 7 days (female) or 14 days (male)|
|Pulse width||0.576 ms|
|Duty cycle||12.5 %|
|Repetition frequency||217 Hz|
|Distance between exposed object and exposure source||20 cm|
|Chamber||shielded room as exposure chamber|
|Setup||signal generator connected via a 2 m long cable to the horn antenna; cage with one animal placed under the antenna's aperture|
|Sham exposure||A sham exposure was conducted.|
Female rabbits: Malondialdehyde levels were significantly increased in group 4 (intrauterine and extrauterine exposure) compared with the sham exposed group and group 3 (intrauterine exposure only). The FOX assay did not reveal any significant differences between the groups. The 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine levels were significantly increased in groups 2 (extrauterine exposure only) and 4 compared with the sham exposed group and in group 4 compared with group 3.
Male rabbits: Malondialdehyde levels were significantly decreased in group 3 (intrauterine exposure only) compared with the sham exposed group and group 4 (intrauterine and extrauterine exposure). The FOX assay revealed significantly increased levels in group 3 compared with groups 1 and 4. The 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine levels did not reveal any significant differences between the groups.
GSM-like radiofrequency exposure may induce biochemical changes in the liver tissue of young rabbits.