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Two questions were adressed and investigated: (1) Does exposure to electromagnetic fields modify waking regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF)?, (2) Is pulse modulation of the signal critical for the EEG effect?
A 'handset-like' signal was used as emitted by GSM mobile phones with modulation components at 2, 8, 217, 1736 Hz.
two planar antennas
Subjects sat on a chair with their heads between two plates to ensure a well-defined position with respect to two planar antennas (see reference article). The left side of the head was exposed.
In one experiment the subjects were exposed to pulse modulated EMFor sham-exposed. In the other experiment the following three exposure conditions were used: pulse modulated EMF, continuous wave EMF, or sham control. In both experiments a double-blind crossover design was used, and intervals between exposures were at least 1 week.