Study overviews

Mobile phone related articles are

Experimental studies on mobile communications

1464 studies in total
  1. 607 studies
  2. 466 studies
  3. 448 studies
  4. 192 studies
  5. 166 studies
  6. 96 studies

DNA

466 studies in total
  1. 246 studies
  2. 170 studies
  3. 94 studies
  4. 39 studies

Gene/protein expression (in general) 94 studies in total

Authors Year Exposed system Endpoints Frequency range SAR Exposure duration Parameters
Shivashankara AR et al. 2015 human - - - - mobile phone, mobile communications
Siqueira EC et al. 2016 human cytokine expression in parotid gland saliva - - up to 200 minutes per month for up to 10 years mobile phone, mobile communications
Stefi AL et al. 2019 - - - - - mobile phone, GSM, mobile communications
Dogan M et al. 2012 animal, rat/Wistar, whole body brain metabolism, oxidative stress, histopathology and apoptosis in the brain 1.9 Hz–2.2 GHz - every day two times 20 min (1x talking, 1x listening mode) from day 2 to day 21 digital mobile phone, GSM, mobile communications
Chen G et al. 2012 intact cell/cell culture, yeast (<i>Saccharomyces cerevisiae</i>)/S288C gene expression in yeast 50 Hz 4.7 W/kg continuous for 6 h GSM, mobile communications, RF field, PW pulsed wave, magnetic field, low frequency, 50/60 Hz
Nikolova T et al. 2005 intact cell/cell culture, ES R1 cells (mouse embryonic stem cells) different effects (e.g. different transcript levels, genotoxicity, proliferation, apoptosis, cytotoxicity, mitochondrial function) 50 Hz–1.25 kHz 1.5 W/kg intermittent, 5 min on/30 min off, for 6 h and 48 h GSM, mobile communications, 50/60 Hz, power transmission line
Kuzniar A et al. 2017 - - 50 Hz–5.8 GHz - - UMTS, mobile communications, W-LAN/WiFi, RF field, 50/60 Hz, low frequency, magnetic field
Seymen CM et al. 2019 animal, rat/Wistar - 2,100 Hz - - mobile communications, mobile phone, GSM
Yan JG et al. 2009 animal, rat/Sprague-Dawley, whole body mRNA synthesis (gene expression) of several injury-associated proteins 800 MHz 0.9–1.8 W/kg 2 times 3 hr / day (with 30 min rest period between exposures), on 7 days/week for 18 weeks mobile communications, mobile phone, analog mobile phone, digital mobile phone, CDMA
Akhavan-Sigari R et al. 2014 human, partial body: head relationship between <i>p53</i> expression, <i>p53</i> mutations, survival time and cell phone usage 800–1,900 MHz 0.66–1.53 W/kg repeated daily exposure of less than 3 hours mobile phone, mobile communications
Kim JH et al. 2016 - - 835 MHz - - mobile phone, mobile communications
Kim JH et al. 2017 animal, mouse/C57BL/6 - 835 MHz - - mobile phone, mobile communications, RF field, CW continuous wave
Kim JH et al. 2017 animal, mouse/C57BL/6, whole body - 835 MHz - - mobile communications, mobile phone
Kim JH et al. 2018 animal, mouse/C57BL/6 - 835 MHz - - mobile communications, RF field, CW continuous wave
Kim JH et al. 2018 animal, mouse/C57BL/6 - 835 MHz - - mobile communications, RF field
Goswami PC et al. 1999 intact cell/cell culture, C3H 10T1/2 cells (derived from mouse embryo fibroblasts) stress response (proto-oncogene expression and DNA-binding activity of transcription factors) 835.62 MHz 0.6 W/kg continuous for 24 h or 4 days mobile communications, CDMA
Whitehead TD et al. 2005 intact cell/cell culture, C3H 10T1/2 cells (derived from mouse embryo fibroblasts) <i>c-Fos</i> mRNA expression 835.62 MHz 5.2–10 W/kg continuous for 4 days CDMA, FDMA, TDMA, mobile communications
Whitehead TD et al. 2006 intact cell/cell culture, C3H 10T1/2 cells (derived from mouse embryo fibroblasts) gene expression 835.62 MHz 5 W/kg continuous for 24 h CDMA, FDMA, mobile communications
Whitehead TD et al. 2006 intact cell/cell culture, C3H 10T1/2 cells (derived from mouse embryo fibroblasts) gene expression 835.62 MHz 5 W/kg continuous for 24 h digital mobile phone, CDMA, FDMA, mobile communications
Ivaschuk OI et al. 1997 intact cell/cell culture, P12 (rat pheochromocytoma cells) expression of the immediate early genes encoding c-<i>jun</i> and c-<i>fos</i> 836.55 MHz 2.6 µW/g intermittent, 20 min on/off, for 20, 60 and 100 min NADC, TDMA, mobile communications
Kim HN et al. 2012 intact cell/cell culture, MCF10 A cells (human breast epithelial cells) Expression of the proteins Hsp27 and ERK1/2 and analysis of its phosphorylated forms 837 MHz 2–4 W/kg continuous for 4 h once or 2 h/day on 3 days mobile phone, CDMA, W-CDMA, mobile communications
Park J et al. 2018 - - 837–1,950 MHz - - mobile phone, CDMA, W-CDMA, mobile communications, RF field
Kim KB et al. 2010 intact cell/cell culture, MCF-7 (human breast cancer cell line) protein expression 849 MHz 2–10 W/kg continuous for 1 h/day on 3 consecutive days mobile phone, CDMA, mobile communications
Nylund R et al. 2004 intact cell/cell culture, EA.hy926 cells protein expression 900 MHz 2.4 W/kg continuous for 1 h GSM, mobile communications, microwaves
Finnie JW 2005 animal, mouse/C57BL/6NTac, whole body <i>c-fos</i> expression in the brain (to assess neural injury) 900 MHz 4 W/kg continuous for 60 min GSM, mobile communications, microwaves
Duranti G et al. 2005 intact cell/cell culture, HaCaT cells (human keratinocytes cell line) cell proliferation, cytotoxicity 900 MHz 0.04–0.08 W/kg continuous for 18 h GSM, mobile communications
Remondini D et al. 2006 intact cell/cell culture, HL-60 (human acute myeloid leukaemia cells), EA.hy926 cells (human endothelial cells), NB69 cells (human neuroblastoma cells), CHME5 cells (human microglial cells), U937 cells (monocytic lymphoblastoma cells), and T lymphocytes gene expression 900 MHz 1–2.5 W/kg intermittent, 5 min on/10 min off, for 24 h digital mobile phone, GSM, mobile communications, microwaves
Nylund R et al. 2006 intact cell/cell culture, EA.hy926 cells and EA.hy926v1 cells gene and protein expression 900 MHz 2.8 W/kg continuous for 1 h digital mobile phone, GSM, mobile communications
Gurisik E et al. 2006 intact cell/cell culture, human neuroblastoma cell line (SK-N-SH) and monocytes cell line (U937) gene expression, cell viability 900 MHz 0.2 W/kg continuous for 1 or 2 h digital mobile phone, GSM, mobile communications
Karinen A et al. 2008 human, partial body: small area of forearm's skin protein expression 900 MHz 1.3 W/kg continuous for 1 h digital mobile phone, GSM, mobile communications
Roux D et al. 2011 intact cell/cell culture, normal human epidermal keratinocytes gene expression 900 MHz 2.6–73 mW/kg continuous for 10 min mobile phone, mobile communications, CW continuous wave
Fragopoulou AF et al. 2012 animal, mouse/BALB/c, whole body protein expression in the mouse brain 900 MHz 0.012–0.37 W/kg continuous for 3 h/day for 8 months mobile phone, digital mobile phone, GSM, mobile communications, PW pulsed wave, DECT, wireless transmitter
Bourthoumieu S et al. 2013 intact cell/cell culture expression and activating of p53 protein 900 MHz 4–32 W/kg continuous for 24 h mobile phone, GSM, mobile communications, PW pulsed wave
Liu Y et al. 2013 intact cell/cell culture, Raji cells (human Burkitt lymphoma cells) gene expression of EBV-EA (early antigen) 900 MHz 0.02 mW/g continuous for 4 h every day up to 4 weeks mobile phone, GSM, mobile communications
Luo Q et al. 2013 human protein expression in chorionic villous tissue 900 MHz 1.46–8.8 W/kg continuous for 20 min. (according to "materials and methods" section) or 1 h (according to abstract)? mobile phone, GSM, mobile communications
Sepehrimanesh M et al. 2014 animal, rat/Sprague-Dawley, whole body protein expression in testes 900 MHz 0.19–1.22 W/g repeated daily exposure for 1 h on 30 consecutive days mobile phone, mobile communications
Dasdag S et al. 2015 animal, rat/ Wistar albino, partial body: head microRNA expression in the brain 900 MHz 0.0369–2.023 W/kg continuous for 3 h/day on 7 days/week for 12 months GSM, mobile communications
Sepehrimanesh M et al. 2017 - - 900 MHz - - mobile communications, mobile phone, RF field
Gökçek-Saraç Ç et al. 2017 animal, rat/Wistar albino - 900 MHz - - mobile communications
Lamkowski A et al. 2018 - - 900 MHz - - mobile communications, CW continuous wave
Del Re B et al. 2019 intact cell/cell culture - 900 MHz - - GSM, mobile phone, mobile communications
Ghatei N et al. 2017 animal, mouse/BALB/c (pregnant females and young animal) - 900–1,800 MHz - - mobile communications
Tohidi FZ et al. 2021 animal, mouse/BALB/c - 900–1,800 MHz - - mobile communications, GSM, CDMA, mobile phone
Gökçek-Saraç Ç et al. 2017 animal, rat/Wistar (adults and pubs), partial body - 900–2,100 MHz - - mobile communications, GSM, mobile phone, RF field
Ozgur E et al. 2021 intact cell/cell culture - 900–2,100 MHz - - mobile communications, GSM
Kumar R et al. 2019 animal, rat/Wistar - 900–2,450 MHz - - mobile phone, mobile communications, low level microwaves, 2.45 GHz
Kumar R et al. 2021 - - 900–2,450 MHz - - mobile communications, mobile phone, 2.45 GHz, RF field
Pacini S et al. 2002 intact cell/cell culture, human skin fibroblasts gene expression, cell morphology 902.4 MHz 0.6 W/kg continuous for 1 h GSM, mobile communications
Belyaev IY et al. 2006 animal, rat/Fischer 344, whole body DNA strand breaks, changes in chromatin conformation, gene expression 915 MHz 0.4 mW/g continuous for 2 h GSM, mobile communications, microwaves
de Pomerai DI et al. 2016 - - 1–1.8 GHz - - mobile phone, GSM, mobile communications, RF field, CW continuous wave