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The effects of exposure of human sperm to an 850 MHz electromagnetic field from a mobile phone on different sperm parameters should be investigated.
Clusterin is a protein, which is overexpressed in stressed tissues and appears to be potentially related pathophysiological processes. Acrosin is the major proteinase present in the acrosome of mature spermatozoa, and it is important for fertilization.
Semen samples were collected from 124 donors. Each sample was analyzed in respect of the semen quality according to WHO guidelines. Afterwards, samples were divided into the following groups: 1) normal sperm quality (n=26), 2) decreased sperm motility (n=32), 3) decreased sperm motility and increased rate of sperm malformations (n=31) and 4) severely decreased sperm motility and malformations of sperms (n=35). Each sample was divided into two portions: one for exposure to the electromagnetic field and one without exposure as the control group.
all samples were kept and exposed at room temperature
In group 1 (normal sperm quality), the gene expression and protein expression of clusterin as well as the DNA fragmentation were significantly increased in sperms exposed to the electromagnetic field compared to the control group.
In all other groups (2-4, with pre-experimental sperm quality deficiencies), sperm motility and acrosin enzyme activity were significantly decreased and the gene expression and protein expression of clusterin as well as the DNA fragmentation were significantly increased compared to the control group. A trend towards enhanced effects in sperms with more severe pre-experimental sperm quality deficiencies could be observed.
The authors conclude that exposure of human sperm to an 850 MHz electromagnetic field from a mobile phone could have detrimental effects on sperms.