The exposure system employing two TEM cells operated in series in a vertical position has been described in the reference article.
A plastic rack held six 14 ml tubes (half of the tubes on each side of the septum) so that they were exposed from the bottom with the long axis parallel to the direction of wave propagation. Input power levels for the first TEM cell were set for a given average SAR in the bottom 1 ml of the sample. A length of coaxial cable was used to attenuate the input power for the second TEM cell. A terminating load absorbed any power not absorbed by the samples. Power level fluctuation was below 10%.
Negative (sham-exposed) and positive (with EMS) controls included in each experiment were obtained by the second TEM cell being disconnected from the input power.
The culture temperature in each TEM cell was monitored using fiberoptic thermometers, two of which were inserted into a test tube containing blood in complete media. The procedures used to measure and calculate SARs have been described in the reference article. Using an FDTD analysis, average SARs for the entire 10 ml and the bottom 1 ml were calculated for both frequencies. Calculated average SARs over the entire 10 ml volume were based on time-temperature profiles produced using the fiberoptic probes.
Speit G et al.
Genotoxic effects of exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) in HL-60 cells are not reproducible
Esmekaya MA et al.
Mutagenic and morphologic impacts of 1.8 GHz radiofrequency radiation on human peripheral blood lymphocytes (hPBLs) and possible protective role of pre-treatment with Ginkgo biloba (EGb 761)
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Transient DNA damage induced by high-frequency electromagnetic fields (GSM 1.8GHz) in the human trophoblast HTR-8/SVneo cell line evaluated with the alkaline comet assay
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In vitro assessment of clastogenicity of mobile-phone radiation (835 MHz) using the alkaline comet assay and chromosomal aberration test
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Genotoxic effects of exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) in cultured mammalian cells are not independently reproducible
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Evaluating the combinative effects on human lymphocyte DNA damage induced by ultraviolet ray C plus 1.8 GHz microwaves using comet assay in vitro
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Cytogenetic investigation of subjects professionally exposed to radiofrequency radiation
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Exposure to radiofrequency radiation (900 MHz, GSM signal) does not affect micronucleus frequency and cell proliferation in human peripheral blood lymphocytes: an interlaboratory study
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