Study type: Medical/biological study (experimental study)

Comparative analysis of the protective effects of melatonin and caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) on mobile phone-induced renal impairment in rat med./bio.

Published in: Mol Cell Biochem 2005; 276 (1-2): 31-37

Aim of study (acc. to author)

To compare the protective effects of melatonin and CAPE against 900 MHz electromagnetic field-induced renal tubular injury.

Background/further details

Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) is one of the major components of honeybee propolis. It has been used in folk medicine for many years in Middle East countries. Melatonin and CAPE were found to be potent free radical scavengers and antioxidants.
ROS such as superoxide and nitric oxide may contribute to the pathophysiology of electromagnetic irradiation-induced renal impairment.



Exposure Parameters
Exposure 1: 900 MHz
Modulation type: CW
Exposure duration: repeated daily exposure, 30 min/day for 10 days

Exposure 1

Main characteristics
Frequency 900 MHz
Exposure duration repeated daily exposure, 30 min/day for 10 days
Modulation type CW
Exposure setup
Exposure source
Chamber The exposure system consisted of a ventilated plastic tube cage (12 cm long x 5.5 cm in diameter) and a dipole antenna.
Setup The whole body of the rat was positioned in close contact above the antenna.
Additional info Rats were allocated to four groups: sham exposed, EMR exposed, EMR exposed + melatonin treated, and EMR exposed + CAPE treated. Melatonin dissolved in ethanol/saline was injected s.c., and CAPE was injected i.p. daily immediately before exposure. Sham exposed rats were injected with isotonic saline solution instead.
Measurand Value Type Method Mass Remarks
power 2 W peak value - - -
power density 1.04 mW/cm² mean measured - -
SAR 1.04 W/kg mean measured - -

Exposed system:

Methods Endpoint/measurement parameters/methodology

Investigated system:
Investigated organ system:
Time of investigation:
  • after exposure

Main outcome of study (acc. to author)

Urinary NAG and renal malondialdehyde were increased in electromagnetic field exposed animals while both melatonin and CAPE caused a significant reduction in the levels of these parameters but the effect of melatonin was more potent than that of CAPE. Likewise, renal superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities were decreased in exposed rats while melatonin caused a significant increase in the activities of these antioxidant enzymes but CAPE did not.
In conclusion, melatonin and CAPE prevent renal tubular injury by reducing oxidative stress and protect the kidney from oxidative damage induced by mobile phone (900 MHz). Nevertheless, melatonin seems to be a more potent antioxidant in comparison to CAPE in kidney.

Study character:

Study funded by

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