研究のタイプ: 医学/生物学の研究 (experimental study)

[肝臓の抗酸化物質貯蔵はラットの妊娠および胎仔発達の過程において電磁放射(900および1800MHz)誘発性の酸化ストレスから脳を防護する] med./bio.

Liver antioxidant stores protect the brain from electromagnetic radiation (900 and 1800 MHz)-induced oxidative stress in rats during pregnancy and the development of offspring.

掲載誌: J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2014; 27 (18): 1915-1921

この研究は、ラット妊娠中から6週齢の新生児までの間、900および1800 MHzの電磁界(EMR)にばく露することにより、脳および肝臓酸化ストレス微量元素レベルが変化するか否かを調べた。妊娠中のWisterアルビノ母ラットとその仔ラットは同じばく露条件で、妊娠中から6週齢まで1日60分間、5日/週、ばく露を継続した。ばく露条件は、A群:EMR無ばく露固定ストレスばく露、B群:900 MHzばく露、C群:1800 MHzばく露である。母ラットは32匹(各群の割り当ては不明)、各条件の新生仔群からそれぞれ雄24匹が無作為に選ばれた。EMRばく露には、放射状に並べた12個の円筒ケースに頭からラットを入れ、並んだ筒の中心に置かれた半波長ダイポールアンテナを用い、放射出力12 μW/ cm2でのSARは0.001-1.1W/ kgと計算されている。なお、出産直後から雌雄判別される3週齢までもばく露を継続したと記されているが、詳細は記されていない。4、5、6週齢で、各群8匹ずつ屠殺し、組織標本を検査した。その結果、EMR群では、脳および肝組織グルタチオンペルオキシダーゼ活性、および肝組織ビタミンAおよびβカロテン濃度は低下したが、脳組織の鉄、ビタミンA、βカロテン濃度は上昇した;EMR群の6週齢では、脳組織セレン濃度が低下した;3つの群の間で、グルタチオネイン、ビタミンE、クロム、銅、マグネシウムマンガン亜鉛の濃度には有意差がなかった、と報告している。

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研究目的(著者による)

To investigate the effects of electromagnetic fields emitted by mobile phones on oxidative stress in the brain and liver of young rats.

詳細情報

32 pregnant rats were equally divided into three groups: 1.) control group, 2.) exposure to a 900 MHz electromagnetic field and 3.) exposure to a 1800 MHz electromagnetic field. From each group 24 male pups were chosen and subjected to the same exposure condition as the respective dam. The young rats were killed and examined in the age of 4, 5, and 6 weeks (n=8 per group and time point).

影響評価項目

ばく露

ばく露 パラメータ
ばく露1: 900 MHz
Modulation type: pulsed
ばく露時間: 1 hour per day, starting in utero until the age of 4, 5, or 6 weeks
  • SAR: 0.001 W/kg minimum (whole body)
  • SAR: 0.15 W/kg mean (whole body) (or 0.1 W/kg? contradictory information given)
  • SAR: 1.1 W/kg maximum (whole body)
  • 電力密度: 12 µW/cm² (input power)
  • 電界強度: 10 V/m (or 11 V/m? contradictory information given; measured at the closest point of the body)
ばく露2: 1,800 MHz
Modulation type: pulsed
ばく露時間: 1 hour per day, starting in utero until the age of 4, 5, or 6 weeks
  • SAR: 0.001 W/kg minimum (whole body)
  • SAR: 0.15 W/kg mean (whole body) (or 0.1 W/kg? contradictory information given)
  • SAR: 1.1 W/kg maximum (whole body)
  • 電力密度: 12 µW/cm² (input power)
  • 電界強度: 10 V/m (or 11 V/m? contradictory information given; measured at the closest point of the body)

ばく露1

主たる特性
周波数 900 MHz
タイプ
  • electromagnetic field
波形
  • pulsed
ばく露時間 1 hour per day, starting in utero until the age of 4, 5, or 6 weeks
Modulation
Modulation type pulsed
Repetition frequency 217 Hz
ばく露装置
ばく露の発生源/構造
Distance between exposed object and exposure source 1 cm
ばく露装置の詳細 generator was equipped with a half-wave dipole antenna system; exposure system was kept in a specific room with plastic furniture to prevent possible radiation reflection; walls of the room were completely covered by chromium-nickel metals for protection from possible outside telemetric exposure; as shown by a picture, rats were exposed simultaneously in plastic cylinders with its heads to the antenna
Additional information contradictory information given about control group: in one sentence it is stated that control group rats were placed in a cylindrical container with the radiofrequency source switched off; another sentence says that the control animals were kept in their cage without any treatment or restraint of any kind.
パラメータ
測定量 種別 Method Mass 備考
SAR 0.001 W/kg minimum 計算値 whole body -
SAR 0.15 W/kg mean 計算値 whole body or 0.1 W/kg? contradictory information given
SAR 1.1 W/kg maximum 計算値 whole body -
電力密度 12 µW/cm² - - - input power
電界強度 10 V/m - 測定値 - or 11 V/m? contradictory information given; measured at the closest point of the body

ばく露2

主たる特性
周波数 1,800 MHz
タイプ
  • electromagnetic field
波形
  • pulsed
ばく露時間 1 hour per day, starting in utero until the age of 4, 5, or 6 weeks
Modulation
Modulation type pulsed
Repetition frequency 217 Hz
ばく露装置
ばく露の発生源/構造
  • E1と同じ装置
パラメータ
測定量 種別 Method Mass 備考
SAR 0.001 W/kg minimum 計算値 whole body -
SAR 0.15 W/kg mean 計算値 whole body or 0.1 W/kg? contradictory information given
SAR 1.1 W/kg maximum 計算値 whole body -
電力密度 12 µW/cm² - - - input power
電界強度 10 V/m - 測定値 - or 11 V/m? contradictory information given; measured at the closest point of the body

Reference articles

  • Ozorak A et al. (2013): [仔ラットの腎臓と精巣の酸化ストレスならびにその関連要素に対して妊娠時から出生後の発育時のWi-Fi(2.45 GHz)ならびに携帯電話(900及び1800 MHz)が誘発するリスク]
  • Jin Z et al. (2012): [HL-60細胞における900 MHz無線周波電磁界とドキソルビシンの組み合わせばく露の影響]
  • Turker Y et al. (2011): [セレンとL-カルニチンは無線装置からの2.45GHz放射によるラット心臓での酸化ストレスを低減する]
  • Koyu A et al. (2005): [カフェイン酸フェネチルエステルは、ラット肝臓において1800 MHzのマイクロ波誘起酸化ストレスを調節する]
  • Peyman A et al. (2001): [マイクロ波周波数でのラット組織の誘電特性の年齢の関数としての変化]

ばく露を受けた生物:

方法 影響評価項目/測定パラメータ/方法

研究対象とした生物試料:
調査の時期:
  • ばく露中
  • ばく露後

研究の主なアウトカム(著者による)

Malformation or prenatal death was not observed during the experiment.
In the liver and brain of exposed rats (900 MHz and 1800 MHz), the enzyme activity of the glutathione peroxidase (in 4- and 5-week-old rats) was significantly decreased compared to the control group. In the brain of both exposure groups, the level of vitamin A (in 4-, 5-, and 6-week-old rats) and the level of beta-carotene (in 4- and 5-week-old rats) were significantly increased when compared to the control animals. In the liver of exposed rats, the lipid peroxidation (in 4-, 5-, and 6-week old rats) was significant increased in comparison to the control, while the levels of vitamin A and beta-carotene were significantly decreased (in 4-, 5-, and 6-week old rats).
In 4-, 5-, and 6-week-old rats, the exposed groups showed significant increases regarding iron levels compared to the control, while the selenium concentration was significantly decreased in 6-week-old exposed rats.
The authors conclude that electromagnetic fields emitted by mobile phones could be a cause of oxidative brain and liver injuries in young rats.

研究の種別:

研究助成

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