研究のタイプ: 医学/生物学の研究 (experimental study, review/survey)

[携帯電話放射による生物学的および健康への影響] med./bio.

Biological and Health Effects of Mobile Telephone Radiations.

掲載誌: Int J Med Biol Front 2009; 15 (1-2): 33-76
Journal partially peer-reviewed/unclear

この論文は、学術誌の特集に掲載されたものであり、携帯電話電磁界へのばく露に関する生物学的および健康への影響を解説している。内容について、最も重要な実験的、臨床的、統計的な知見を簡単にレビューする;特に、モデル生物学的システムでの細胞の死滅の誘導に関する一連の実験について、以下のように広範に情報を提供する;携帯電話電磁放射は、数分間/日でのわずか数日間のばく露で、昆虫の繁殖を有意に、非熱的に、最大60 %低下させることが示されている;この影響は、生殖腺のDNA断片化によるものであり、等しい条件下において強度が高いGSMの方が、DCSよりも生物への作用が大きいことが示されている;生殖能力の低下は、電磁界強度に非線形に依存するように見え、200 μW/ cm2を超えると一つのピークが見られる他に、約10 μW/ cm2付近の強度の「窓」で最大値を示すようである;最後に、この論文では、携帯電話電磁放射生物に及ぼす記録された影響を説明できる、もっともらしい生物物理学的および生化学的メカニズムについて説明する、と概説している。

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研究目的(著者による)

This article consists of a review of biological, clinical and epidemiological data and an experimental study. In the following only the experimental study is presented.
To study the effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic irradiation at 900 MHz (emitted by GSM mobile phones) and at 1800 MHz (emitted by DCS mobile phones) on reproductive capacity of the insect Drosophila melanogaster and the dependency of the effect of different electromagnetic field parameters (e.g. intensity, carrier frequency, distance from antenna).

詳細情報

There were six sets of experiments: 1) GSM 900 MHz exposure in non-speaking mode (non-modulated), 2) mobile phone exposure in speaking mode (modulated emission, GSM), 3) investigation of effects of the mobile phone GSM signal on the reproductive capacity of each sex separately, 4) comparison of bioactivity between GSM 900 MHz and DCS 1800 MHz, 5) exposure of insects at different distances (0-100 cm), both types of exposure, 6) effects on DNA fragmentation (cell death) in the ovarian cells. In each experiment different exposed and sham exposed groups were used.
Each group consisted of ten female and ten male newly emerged flies kept in separate vials for the first 48 h. After the 48 h, when both males and females of each group were sexually mature, they were put together (10 pairs) in another glass vial and they were allowed to mate and lay eggs for the next 72 h.
For cell death investigation ovarioles were investigated (background information about ovarioles, see Panagopoulos 2007b).

影響評価項目

ばく露

ばく露 パラメータ
ばく露1: 900 MHz
Modulation type: pulsed
ばく露時間: continuous for 6 min/day on 5 days
investigation of non-modulated GSM exposure on the reproductive capacity
ばく露2: 900 MHz
Modulation type: pulsed
ばく露時間: continuous for 6 min/day on 5 days
investigation of GSM exposure on the reproductive capacity
ばく露3: 900 MHz
Modulation type: pulsed
ばく露時間: continuous for 6 min/day on 2 days
investigation of each sex separately
ばく露4: 900–1,800 MHz
Modulation type: pulsed
ばく露時間: continuous for 6 min/day on 5 days
comparison of GSM 900 and DCS 1800 exposure
  • 電界強度: 22.3 V/m average over time (+/- 2.2 V/m ELF component for group i))
  • 磁束密度: 0.05 µT average over time (+/- 0.008 µT ELF component for group i))
  • 電力密度: 0.407 mW/cm² (+/- 0.061 mW/cm² for group i))
  • 電界強度: 13.9 V/m average over time (+/- 1.6 V/m for group ii))
  • 磁束密度: 0.04 µT average over time (+/- 0.007 µT for group ii))
  • 電力密度: 0.286 mW/cm² (+/- 0.05 mW/cm² for group ii))
  • 電界強度: 14.2 V/m average over time (+/- 1.7 V/m for group iii))
  • 磁束密度: 0.038 µT average over time (+/- 0.007 µT for group iii))
  • 電力密度: 0.283 mW/cm² (+/- 0.043 mW/cm² for group iii))
  • SAR: 0.89 W/kg maximum (manufacturer's data for the head)
  • 電力: 2 W (for GSM)
  • 電力: 1 W (for DCS)
ばく露5: 900–1,800 MHz
Modulation type: pulsed
ばく露時間: continuous for 6 min/day on 5 days
experiment with different distances (i.e. intensities)
  • SAR: 0.89 W/kg maximum (manufacturer's data for the head)
  • 電力: 2 W (for GSM)
  • 電力: 1 W (for DCS)
  • 電力密度: 0.38 mW/cm² maximum (+/- 0.058 mW/cm² for GSM at 0 cm distance)
  • 電力密度: 0.0004 mW/cm² minimum (+/- 0.0001 mW/cm² for GSM at 100 cm distance)
  • 電界強度: 19 V/m maximum (+/- 2.5 V/m for GSM at 0 cm distance)
  • 電界強度: 0.1 V/m minimum (+/- 0.02 V/m for GSM at 50 cm distance)
  • 磁束密度: 0.09 µT maximum (+/- 0.015 µT for GSM at 0 cm distance)
  • 磁束密度: 0.005 µT minimum (+/- 0.001 µT for GSM at 40 cm distance)
  • 電力密度: 0.25 mW/cm² maximum (+/- 0.048 mW/cm² for DCS at 0 cm distance)
  • 電力密度: 0.0002 mW/cm² minimum (+/- 0.0001 mW/cm² for DCS at 100 cm distance)
  • 電界強度: 13 V/m maximum (+/- 2.1 V/m for DCS at 0 cm distance)
  • 電界強度: 0.1 V/m minimum (+/- 0.04 V/m for DCS at 40 cm distance)
  • 磁束密度: 0.06 µT maximum (+/- 0.008 µT for DCS at 0 cm distance)
  • 磁束密度: 0.006 µT minimum (+/- 0.001 µT for DCS at 30 cm distance)
ばく露6: 900–1,800 MHz
Modulation type: pulsed
ばく露時間: continuous for 6 min/day on 6 days
cell death experiment
  • SAR: 0.89 W/kg maximum (manufacturer's data for the head)
  • 電力: 2 W (for GSM)
  • 電力: 1 W (for DCS)

ばく露1

主たる特性
周波数 900 MHz
タイプ
  • electromagnetic field
ばく露時間 continuous for 6 min/day on 5 days
Additional information investigation of non-modulated GSM exposure on the reproductive capacity
Additional information GSM phone in non-speaking (DTX) mode
Modulation
Modulation type pulsed
Pulse width 4.6315 ms
Repetition frequency 217 Hz
Additional information

additional frequencies: 8.34 Hz, 2 Hz

ばく露装置
ばく露の発生源/構造
  • commercially available digital mobile phone
ばく露装置の詳細 flies kept in 10 cm high glass vials with a diameter of 2.5 cm, closed with a cotton plug; during exposure plug pushed down in the vial to about 1 cm from the ground; mobile phone placed outside the vial in contact to it
Sham exposure A sham exposure was conducted.
パラメータ
測定量 種別 Method Mass 備考
電力 2 W - - - -

ばく露2

主たる特性
周波数 900 MHz
タイプ
  • electromagnetic field
ばく露時間 continuous for 6 min/day on 5 days
Additional information investigation of GSM exposure on the reproductive capacity
Additional information GSM phone in speaking mode
Modulation
Modulation type pulsed
Pulse width 4.6315 ms
Repetition frequency 217 Hz
Additional information

additional frequencies: 8.34 Hz, 2 Hz

ばく露装置
ばく露の発生源/構造
  • E1と同じ装置
Sham exposure A sham exposure was conducted.
パラメータ
測定量 種別 Method Mass 備考
電力 2 W - - - -

ばく露3

主たる特性
周波数 900 MHz
タイプ
  • electromagnetic field
ばく露時間 continuous for 6 min/day on 2 days
Additional information investigation of each sex separately
Additional information GSM phone in speaking mode flies were treated in four groups: i) male and female flies exposed ii) only female flies exposed iii) only male flies exposed iv) male and female flies sham exposed
Modulation
Modulation type pulsed
Pulse width 4.6315 ms
Repetition frequency 217 Hz
Additional information

additional frequencies: 8.34 Hz, 2 Hz

ばく露装置
ばく露の発生源/構造
  • E1と同じ装置
Sham exposure A sham exposure was conducted.
パラメータ
測定量 種別 Method Mass 備考
電力 2 W - - - -

ばく露4

主たる特性
周波数 900–1,800 MHz
タイプ
  • electromagnetic field
ばく露時間 continuous for 6 min/day on 5 days
Additional information comparison of GSM 900 and DCS 1800 exposure
Additional information flies were treated in four groups: i) GSM 900 exposure with the phone's antenna in contact to the vial ii) GSM 900 exposure with the phone's antenna at 1 cm distance to the vial iii) DCS 1800 exposure with the phone's antenna in contact to the vial iv) sham exposure
Modulation
Modulation type pulsed
Pulse width 4.631 ms
Repetition frequency 217 Hz
Additional information

additional frequencies: 8.34 Hz, 2 Hz

ばく露装置
ばく露の発生源/構造
  • E1と同じ装置
Sham exposure A sham exposure was conducted.
パラメータ
測定量 種別 Method Mass 備考
電界強度 22.3 V/m average over time 測定値 - +/- 2.2 V/m ELF component for group i)
磁束密度 0.05 µT average over time 測定値 - +/- 0.008 µT ELF component for group i)
電力密度 0.407 mW/cm² - 測定値 - +/- 0.061 mW/cm² for group i)
電界強度 13.9 V/m average over time 測定値 - +/- 1.6 V/m for group ii)
磁束密度 0.04 µT average over time 測定値 - +/- 0.007 µT for group ii)
電力密度 0.286 mW/cm² - 測定値 - +/- 0.05 mW/cm² for group ii)
電界強度 14.2 V/m average over time 測定値 - +/- 1.7 V/m for group iii)
磁束密度 0.038 µT average over time 測定値 - +/- 0.007 µT for group iii)
電力密度 0.283 mW/cm² - 測定値 - +/- 0.043 mW/cm² for group iii)
SAR 0.89 W/kg maximum - - manufacturer's data for the head
電力 2 W - - - for GSM
電力 1 W - - - for DCS

ばく露5

主たる特性
周波数 900–1,800 MHz
タイプ
  • electromagnetic field
ばく露時間 continuous for 6 min/day on 5 days
Additional information experiment with different distances (i.e. intensities)
Additional information flies were treated in 13 groups: i) GSM 900 or DCS 1800 exposure with the phone's antenna in contact to the vial ii) GSM 900 or DCS 1800 exposure with the phone's antenna at 1 cm distance to the vial iii) GSM 900 or DCS 1800 exposure with the phone's antenna at 10 cm distance to the vial iv)GSM 900 or DCS 1800 exposure with the phone's antenna at 20 cm distance to the vial . . . xii) GSM 900 or DCS 1800 exposure with the phone's antenna at 100 cm distance to the vial xiii) sham exposure
Modulation
Modulation type pulsed
Pulse width 4.631 ms
Repetition frequency 217 Hz
Additional information

additional frequencies: 8.34 Hz, 2 Hz

ばく露装置
ばく露の発生源/構造
  • E1と同じ装置
Sham exposure A sham exposure was conducted.
パラメータ
測定量 種別 Method Mass 備考
SAR 0.89 W/kg maximum - - manufacturer's data for the head
電力 2 W - - - for GSM
電力 1 W - - - for DCS
電力密度 0.38 mW/cm² maximum 測定値 - +/- 0.058 mW/cm² for GSM at 0 cm distance
電力密度 0.0004 mW/cm² minimum 測定値 - +/- 0.0001 mW/cm² for GSM at 100 cm distance
電界強度 19 V/m maximum 測定値 - +/- 2.5 V/m for GSM at 0 cm distance
電界強度 0.1 V/m minimum 測定値 - +/- 0.02 V/m for GSM at 50 cm distance
磁束密度 0.09 µT maximum 測定値 - +/- 0.015 µT for GSM at 0 cm distance
磁束密度 0.005 µT minimum 測定値 - +/- 0.001 µT for GSM at 40 cm distance
電力密度 0.25 mW/cm² maximum 測定値 - +/- 0.048 mW/cm² for DCS at 0 cm distance
電力密度 0.0002 mW/cm² minimum 測定値 - +/- 0.0001 mW/cm² for DCS at 100 cm distance
電界強度 13 V/m maximum 測定値 - +/- 2.1 V/m for DCS at 0 cm distance
電界強度 0.1 V/m minimum 測定値 - +/- 0.04 V/m for DCS at 40 cm distance
磁束密度 0.06 µT maximum 測定値 - +/- 0.008 µT for DCS at 0 cm distance
磁束密度 0.006 µT minimum 測定値 - +/- 0.001 µT for DCS at 30 cm distance

ばく露6

主たる特性
周波数 900–1,800 MHz
タイプ
  • electromagnetic field
ばく露時間 continuous for 6 min/day on 6 days
Additional information cell death experiment
Additional information flies were treated in five groups: i) GSM 900 exposure with the phone's antenna in contact to the vial ii) GSM 900 exposure with the phone's antenna at 1 cm distance to the vial iii) DCS 1800 exposure with the phone's antenna in contact to the vial iv) sham exposure v) control
Modulation
Modulation type pulsed
Pulse width 4.631 ms
Repetition frequency 217 Hz
Additional information

additional frequencies: 8.34 Hz, 2 Hz

ばく露装置
ばく露の発生源/構造
  • E1と同じ装置
Sham exposure A sham exposure was conducted.
パラメータ
測定量 種別 Method Mass 備考
SAR 0.89 W/kg maximum - - manufacturer's data for the head
電力 2 W - - - for GSM
電力 1 W - - - for DCS

Reference articles

  • Diem E et al. (2005): [イン・ビトロでのヒト線維芽細胞および形質転換GFSH-R17ラット顆粒膜細胞における携帯電話放射(1800MHz)による非熱的なDNA切断]
  • Barteri M et al. (2005): [アセチルコリンエステラーゼ活性に対する携帯電話マイクロ波の構造的および動力学的影響]
  • Weisbrot D et al. (2003): [キイロョウジョウバエの生殖および発生に対する携帯電話放射の影響]
  • Goodman EM et al. (1995): [分子と細胞の電磁界効果]

ばく露を受けた生物:

方法 影響評価項目/測定パラメータ/方法

研究対象とした生物試料:
研究対象とした臓器系:
調査の時期:
  • ばく露後

研究の主なアウトカム(著者による)

A few minutes of daily mobile phone exposure for only a few days significantly decreased the insect reproduction by up to 60% (experiment 2 with the modulated field). Both sexes were found to be affected, but females were more affected than the males. The effect was due to DNA fragmentation in the gonads caused by both types of digital mobile phone radiation (GSM 900 MHz and DCS 1800 MHz).
GSM exposure was more bioactive than DCS exposure, due to its higher intensity under equal conditions. The decrease in reproductive capacity seemed to be non-linearly depended on irradiation intensity, exhibiting a peak for intensities higher than 200 µW/cm² and a window effect around µ10W/cm². This intensity "window" appeared at a distance of 20-30 cm from the mobile phone antenna.

研究の種別:

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